Title page for ETD etd-12122011-161032

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Potgieter, Roelof Daniel
Email roelie.potgieter@bsnmedical.com
URN etd-12122011-161032
Document Title Goal orientation, the growth mindset and coping strategies for success and failure in competitive sport
Degree Master of Arts
Department Biokinetics, Sport and Leisure Sciences
Advisor Name Title
Prof B J M Steyn Supervisor
  • goal orientation
  • task orientation
  • ego orientation
  • success
  • positiewe reaksie tot mislukking
  • failure
  • negatiewe reaksie tot mislukking
  • fixed mindset
  • growth mindset
  • self-theories
  • negatiewe reaksie tot sukses
  • mislukking
  • positiewe reaksie tot sukses
  • groei instelling
  • sukses
  • self-teoriŽ
  • ego oriŽntasie
  • negative reaction to failure
  • taakoriŽntasie
  • statiese instelling
  • positive reaction to failure
  • doeloriŽntasie
  • positive reaction to success
  • negative reaction to success
Date 2011-09-08
Availability unrestricted
In todayís sport careers there is no room for error. This is why athletes should be ďon top of their gameĒ every time they compete. It is very important for athletes to keep their emotions under control, because emotions can sometimes determine success or failure. But more important is how the athlete reacts to success and failure. Therefore, in this study the aim was to establish an athleteís reaction to success and failure. An athlete should have the ability or strategy to handle success and failure. According to this statement, it underlines the importance of the current study. The fact that there are limited resources in this field accentuates the need for this study.

Each athlete experiences and reacts to success or failure differently. An athlete can use success or failure as a facilitator or as a debilitator. If an athlete sees success or failure as a facilitator, he or she will use success or failure as a method to enhance his or her performance. But if an athlete sees success and failure as a debilitator, it means that the athlete does not have the ability or skills to use success or failure to his or her advantage. It seems that elite athletes may have the skills or ability to use success and failure as a facilitator and not as a debilitator owing to the fact that in the elite arena there is no place for errors. In this study, the researcher examines how elite and beginner athleteís handle success and failure and what their reaction is towards success and failure. Each athlete has a unique way to develop his or her talents. Athletes who believe that they are born with limited talent or ability and cannot improve this talent by more practice or more effort can be classified as having a static mindset. When athletes believe that they can improve their talent or ability, they could be seen as athletes with a growth mindset.

This study made use of a combination of convenient and random sampling. Each athlete had to comply with the criterium to be part of the study. The criterium stipulated that each athlete should be an active participant in sport either at school-, provincial-, national- or international level. To determine what goal orientation each athlete had, they were asked to fill out the task- and ego orientation in sport questionnaire. To determine what their reactions to success and failure were, athletes completed an assessment of success and failure questionnaire that was self-developed by the present researcher Roelie Potgieter and his study leader professor Ben Steyn. The self-theory questionnaire that was completed by the athletes determined whether an athlete was in the fixed or growth mindset.

Using the results determined through the questionnaires that were completed by the athletes, correlations could be made to motivate the study. Task orientation and the growth mindset is more predominant than ego orientation and the fixed mindset. Athletes in general react more constructively towards success and failure. A strong correlation was found between task orientation and positive reaction to success and failure. Partial correlation between ego orientation and positive reaction to success was found. Positive relations were discovered between task orientation and the growth mindset, as well as ego orientation and the fixed mindset.

AFRIKAANS : In vandag se sportloopbane is daar geen ruimte vir foute nie. Vir hierdie rede moet Ďn atleet ten alle tye op sy of haar beste wees. Dit is baie belangrik vir Ďn atleet om sy emosies in toom te hou, want somtyds kan die atleet se emosies bepaal of hy of sy sukses of mislukking gaan ervaar. Daarom is die doel van die studie om die reaksie van atlete op sukses en mislukking te bepaal. Die feit dat daar Ďn beperkte hoeveelheid navorsing oor die tema van die studie is beklemtoon weereens die belangrikheid van die studie.

Elke atleet ervaar en reageer verskillend op sukses en mislukking. Ďn Atleet kan sukses of mislukking gebruik as Ďn fasiliteerder of as Ďn debiliteerder. As Ďn atleet sukses of mislukking sien as Ďn fasiliteerder, sal die atleet sukses of mislukking gebruik as Ďn metode om sy of haar prestasie/s te verbeter. Indien Ďn atleet sukses en mislukking sien as Ďn debiliteerder, beteken dit dat die atleet nie die vermoŽ of vaardighede het om sukses of mislukking te gebruik tot sy of haar voordeel nie. Dit wil voorkom dat elite atlete die vermoŽ of vaardighede het om sukses en mislukking te gebruik tot hulle voordeel, as gevolg van die feit dat daar geen plek vir foute tydens die kompetisie is nie. In die studie probeer die navorser bepaal hoe elite- en beginner atlete sukses en mislukking hanteer en wat hulle reaksie op sukses en mislukking is. Elke atleet het Ďn unieke manier om sy of haar talente te ontwikkel. Atlete wat glo dat hulle gebore is met Ďn talent of vermoŽ en kan nie die talent verbeter met oefening of Ďn groter poging kan geklassifiseer word as statiese instelling. Indien die atleet glo dat hulle, hulle talent kan verbeter, kan dit gesien word as Ďn groeiende instelling.

Hierdie studie maak van die gemaklike sowel as die ewekamsige steekproefmetode gebruik. Elke deelnemer moes voldoen aan sekere kriterium om deel te wees van die studie. Die studie se kriteria het beklemtoon dat elke atleet aktief betrokke in Ďn sekere sportsoort moet wees, mag dit wees op skool-, provinsiale-, nasionale- of internasionale vlak. Om te bepaal watter tipe doeloriŽntering elke atleet is was hulle gevra om die taak en ego oriŽntasie vraelys in te vul. Deur die verwysing kan bepaal word wat hulle reaksie is tot sukses en mislukking, was daar van die atlete verwag om die vrae oor sukses en mislukking te voltooi. Die selfteorie vraelys wat deur die atlete voltooi is, het bepaal of die atlleet Ďn statiese of groeinde instelling het.

Deur gebruik te maak van die resultate van die vraelyste wat voltooi is deur die atlete kon daar korrelasies gemaak word. TaakoriŽntasie en die groeiende instelling is meer dominant as die ego oriŽntasie en die statiese instelling. Atlete in die algemeen reageer meer konstruktief teenoor sukses en mislukking. Ďn Sterk korrelasie was gevind deur taakoriŽntasie en positiewe reaksie tot sukses en mislukking. Gedeeltelike korrelasie kon gemaak word tussen ego oriŽntasie en positiewe reaksie tot sukses. Ďn Positiewe korrelasie kon gemaak word tussen taakoriŽntasie en groeiende instelling, asook ego oriŽntasie en statiese instelling.

© 2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Potgieter, RD 2011, Goal orientation, the growth mindset and coping strategies for success and failure in competitive sport, MA dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-12122011-161032 / >


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