Title page for ETD etd-11302009-190811


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Chiremba, Constance
Email chirembac@arc.agric.za
URN etd-11302009-190811
Document Title Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of South African sorghums and of flours and cookies made from them
Degree MSc
Department Food Science
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof J R N Taylor Co-Supervisor
Dr K G Duodu Supervisor
Keywords
  • condensed tannin content
  • antioxidant activity
  • sorghums and flours
  • phenolic content
Date 2009-09-29
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Amongst cereals, sorghum is one of the major sources of phenolic compounds. South African cultivars have not been profiled for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity to highlight their potential benefits. Thus, South African sorghum cultivars representing different sorghum types were evaluated for total phenolic content, condensed tannin content and antioxidant activity and the effect of cultivar on their antioxidant activity. The presence of phenolic antioxidants in the different sorghum cultivars, created an opportunity to develop a sorghum product as a vector of the antioxidants. Cookies were a product of choice due to their shelf stability and high nutrient density. Sorghum cookies were produced from 70%, 90% and 100% extraction rate flours. The effects of flour extraction rates and cultivar on the total phenolic content, condensed tannin content and antioxidant activity of the cookies were determined. Consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate sorghum cookie acceptability against a wheat flour cookie.

Total phenolic content of the cultivars, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was 0.20 to 1.42 g catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g. The total phenolic content was 3 to 7 times higher in condensed tannin cultivars than in tannin-free cultivars. Using the modified Vanillin-HCl method, condensed tannins were only measurable in the condensed tannin cultivars. They ranged between 5.16 and 8.39 g CE/100 g. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity of the condensed tannin cultivars measured by the ABTS radical scavenging assay was up to 4 times higher than in the tannin-free cultivars. The high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of condensed tannin cultivars was attributed to the contribution of condensed tannins. Therefore, condensed tannin cultivars are a major source of antioxidants compared to tannin-free cultivars.

For each sorghum cultivar, cookies of 100% extraction rate flours had 2 to 3 times higher total phenolics compared to those of 70% extraction rate flours, while antioxidant activity was 2 to 10 times higher. Cookies of the condensed tannin sorghum had 2 to 5 times more phenolics compared to those of condensed tannin-free sorghum. Antioxidant activity was 145 to 227 ́Mol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g in cookies of condensed tannin sorghum compared to 10 to 102 ́Mol TE/g in those of condensed tannin-free sorghum. Processing sorghum flours to cookies seemed to reduce phenolic and antioxidant activity, but considering the flour component in the formula, cookie antioxidant activity was slightly higher than that of flours.

The texture of all sorghum cookies was less acceptable compared to that of wheat cookies. The consumers showed a slight overall liking of the condensed tannin-free sorghum and wheat flour cookies. The cookies from condensed tannin flours were neither liked nor disliked. Since generally wheat flour is used for making cookies, the similarities in the overall liking of the condensed tannin-free sorghum cookies and the wheat flour cookies indicate strong potential of sorghum flour for cookie making. Therefore, sorghum cookies have a potential as a functional ready-to-eat snack, with target consumers such as school children in feeding schemes to improve their health and nutrition status.

© 2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Chiremba, C 2008, Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of South African sorghums and of flours and cookies made from them, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-11302009-190811/>

E1506/ag

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