Title page for ETD etd-11122009-170445


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Lubbe, Stephina Johanna
Email nico.lubbe@absamail.co.za
URN etd-11122009-170445
Document Title ’n Kwalitatiewe studie na die rol van massa-toename in die vroeë-adolessente dogter se belewenis van die self (Afrikaans)
Degree PhD
Department Consumer Science
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof H M de Klerk Supervisor
Keywords
  • weight gain in the early adolescent girls
  • adolessente dogters
  • massa-toename
Date 2008-09-02
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: In hierdie studie is die rol van massa-toename in die vroeë-adolessente dogter se belewenis van die self bestudeer.

Aspekte uit die literatuur wat ’n betekenisvolle bydrae tot die grondslag van die studie gelê het, is die volgende:

• die rol wat massa speel in die vroeë-adolessente dogter se belewenis van die self en die implikasies daarvan op haar kledinggedrag

• die rol van ander in die vroeë-adolessente dogter se belewenis van die self en die implikasies daarvan op haar kledinggedrag

• die strategieë wat die vroeë-adolessente dogter gebruik om die self in hierdie ontwikkelingsfase te kan handhaaf en die implikasies daarvan op haar kledinggedrag.

Die steekproef is saamgestel uit 16 blanke vroeë-adolessente dogters tussen die ouderdom van 11 en 13 jaar, wat in ’n stedelike gebied woonagtig was.

’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetodologie is vir die studie gevolg met ongestruktureerde onderhoude, fokusgroepe en persoonlike dokumentasie wat ook verskeie stimulustegnieke ingesluit het. Verbatim transkripsies van die onderhoude sowel as bekrywings van die onderhoudsituasies is gebruik vir die bespreking en interpretasie van die resultate. Dit is gedoen met inagneming van die breë navorsingsvrae wat die studie gerig het.

Vroeë-adolessente dogters ervaar massa-toename verskillend:

• Die normale-massa vroeë-adolessente dogter ervaar dat sy deur die fase van ingrypende veranderinge, wat massa-toename insluit, eintlik vet word. Sy is konstant besig met selfmonitering; die self word ’n objek van evaluering. Sy ervaar die emosie van skaamte en poog om haar liggaam te bedek vir ander wat haar voortdurend dophou.

• Aan die ander kant beleef die oormassa vroeë-adolessente dogter die ontwikkelingsfase meer ontspanne en is sy nie so bewus van haar liggaam en dit wat ander daarvan sê nie. Sy gee voor om nie so begaan te wees oor die oormassa nie, deur ander te blameer vir die situasie en vir haar voorkoms. Sy blameer selfs vir God dat Hy haar so geskep het. Sy ervaar die emosie van hartseer en deur voor te gee dat sy nie oor die situasie bekommerd is nie, hanteer sy slegs die emosie en nie die situasie nie.

• Aan die einde blyk dit egter dat normale-massa en oormassa vroeë-adolessente dogters dieselfde belewenis van die self in die oorgangsfase het. Hulle voel hartseer oor die verlore kinderjare en ervaar dat hulle minder tyd het om te speel maar meer verantwoordelikhede moet dra.

Die studie het die volgende bydrae gelewer:

• ’n Lewensverloop- en simboliese interaksionistiese perspektief kan as geskik beskou word vir ’n studie waarin ’n ontwikkelingsfase soos vroeë adolessensie ter sprake kom.

• Dit blyk dat die vroeë-adolessente dogter in die studie werklik bekommerd is oor haar voorkoms en dit wat ander van haar dink.

• Dit blyk ook dat die vroeë-adolessente dogter in hierdie studie, kleding gebruik om haar voorkoms so te bestuur dat dit aan die norm van ideale liggaamsbou wat in die media voorgehou word, kan voldoen, en dat dit haar kan ondersteun in die aanneem van ‘n volwasse vroulike geslagsrol.

• Dit blyk dat die normale-massa vroeë-adolessente dogter van probleem-gefokusde handhawingstrategieë gebruik maak soos bedek, wegsteek of self-manipulering van die liggaam.

• Die oormassa vroeë-adolessente dogter daarenteë maak van meer emosioneel gefokusde handhawingstrategieë gebruik soos ontkenning, vermyding, kognitiewe her-ontwerp en godsdiens.

Die volgende aanbevelings kan gemaak word:

• Die kwalitatiewe navorsingstyl kan meer dikwels gebruik word in studies met jonger deelnemers.

• Kledingkundiges behoort dit in gedagte te hou dat veral die pas van klere vir die vroeë-adolessente dogter belangrik is en dat kleding wat die liggaam ontbloot, of styf aan die liggaam pas, die liggaam benadruk en die dogter ongemaklik en skaam laat voel.

• Daar behoort ook begrip te wees vir die feit dat dit vir die vroeë-adolessente dogter nou belangrik is om met verskillende voorkomsstyle te eksperimenteer ten einde ‘n voorkoms te vind wat nie net by haar veranderde liggaam pas nie, maar ook by die nuwe rol wat sy nou moet aanneem.

Daar moet in gedagte gehou word dat die studie uitgevoer is met ’n beperkte aantal deelnemers en daarom kan die gevolgtrekking nie na die breë populasie veralgemeen word nie; dit het slegs betrekking op die 16 deelnemers wat met die toestemming van hul ouers aan die studie deelgeneem het.

ENGLISH: In this study the role of weight gain in the early-adolescent girl’s experience of the self was studied. Aspects from the literature that were significant and formed the foundation of the study were:

• the role that weight gain plays in the early adolescent girl’s perception of the self and the implication that it may have for her clothing behaviour

• the role of others in the early adolescent girl’s perception of the self and the implications that it may have for her clothing behaviour

• the strategies that the early-adolescent uses to cope with this development phase and the implications that it may have for her clothing behaviour

The study comprises 16 white early-adolescent girls aged between 11 and 13 years who, according to acknowledged criteria, are staying in an urban environment.

A qualitative research methodology was selected with unstructured interviews, focus groups, and personal documentation utilising various stimulus techniques. Verbatim transcriptions of the interviews as well as descriptions of the interview situation were used for the discussions and interpretations of the results, taking into account the broad research questions set for the study.

The findings were the following: Early-adolescent girls experience weight gain differently:

• The normal-weight early-adolescent girl experiences that by going through this phase of rapid change, which includes an increase in her weight, that she is actually becoming fat. She is constantly busy with self monitoring; her self is becoming an object to evaluate. She experiences the emotion of shame and wants to cover her body from people that are constantly looking at her.

• On the other hand, the overweight early-adolescent girl’s experience of this phase is more relaxed; she is not so much aware of her body and what other people are saying about her. She pretends not to be worried about being overweight by blaming other people and situations for her appearance. She even blames God for creating her that way. She experiences the emotion of sadness and by pretending not to worry or by avoiding the situation, she only copes with the emotion – but the situation is not handled.

• In the end it seems that normal-weight and overweight early-adolescent girls share the same experience of the self. They feel sad about losing their childhood years when they felt less ashamed and had fewer concerns about their body’s appearance. They feel the loss of having less time to play and more responsibilities.

The study could make the following contribution to the theory of clothing:

• The life course and symbolic interactions perspective would be suitable for studies into a developmental stage such as early adolescence.

• It seems that the early-adolescent girl in this study was really concerned with her appearance and about what other people thought of her.

• It seems that the early adolescent girl in this study used clothes in appearance management to manipulate her appearance in order to try and fit the ideal body that the mass media hold up as an example as well as for support in her adoption of an adult gender role.

• The normal-weight early-adolescent girls in this study made use of problem-focused coping strategies such as hiding and self-manipulation of their bodies.

• The overweight early-adolescent girl, on the other hand, made use of more emotionally focused coping strategies such as avoidance, re-appraisal, denial and religion.

The following recommendations were made:

• The qualitative research methodology could be used more often when studying younger participants.

• The early adolescent girl is especially concerned about the fit of her clothes. Tight fitted clothes and clothes that expose her body make her feel uncomfortable and ashamed of herself.

• An understanding of the early-adolescent girl’s need to experiment with new styles and various appearances is needed.

One should keep in mind that this study was conducted with a limited number of participants and the conclusions reached therefore pertain only to the 16 participants who gave their valuable input willingly and with the consent of their parents.

© 2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Lubbe, SJ 2008, ’n Kwalitatiewe studie na die rol van massa-toename in die vroeë-adolessete dogter se belewenis van die self, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-11122009-170445/ >

D713/ag

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