Title page for ETD etd-11092005-140454

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Mokoena, Paballo Gloria
URN etd-11092005-140454
Document Title Stress relaxation test as a predictor of bread flour quality
Degree MSc (Agric) Food Science and Technology
Department Food Science
Advisor Name Title
Prof J R N Taylor Committee Chair
  • bread flour quality testing
  • bread quality testing
Date 2002-04-01
Availability unrestricted
Bread flour quality, which is directly related bread quality, varies from time to time. It is therefore almost impossible to obtain bread with consistent quality without determining the flour's suitability for bread-making and the addition of bread improvers. Rheological tests such as the farinograph and the mixograph which are commonly used by bakeries to predict flour quality are empirical in nature which makes fundamental interpretation of the results difficult.

The stress relaxation test, a more fundamental rheological test, was used in combination with the mixograph to determine if the stress relaxation test can provide additional information to the mixograph on prediction of the effect of ascorbic acid and DATEM on bread-making quality of three different flour samples. In this test, an optimally developed ball of dough was compressed between parallel plates of a TA-XT2 texture analyser. The 20 g dough was compressed to a load of 1.5 N and thereafter allowed to relax at constant deformation. The relaxation time (RT) was recorded as time taken for the compression force to decay to a force of 0.65 N. Longer RT indicated better flour quality. RT was compared with the mixograph peak time and peak height as predictors of the effect of ascorbic acid and DATEM on bread quality.

Test bakes were carried out, and concentrations of ascorbic acid and DATEM were varied as in the stress relaxation test and the mixograph test. At the various stages of the baking process several dough and bread properties were assessed subjectively and scored according to a standardised scoring system.

The mixograph was successful in characterising untreated flours in terms of bread-making quality and the stress relaxation test did not provide additional information in this regard.

The mixograph was better able to predict the effect of improvers on the stronger Lelie while the stress relaxation test was better at predicting improver effect (especially of DATEM) on the weaker flours, Tiger and Silver Queen. The mixograph predicted the improving effect of DATEM on Tiger and Silver Queen up to a peak, followed by no further improvement. The stress relaxation test predicted improvement beyond the peak, and this continued improvement was observed in the test bake and strong correlation (p

2001 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Mokoena, PG 2001, Stress relaxation test as a predictor of bread flour quality, MSc(Agric) dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-11092005-140454/ >


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