Title page for ETD etd-11052012-174302


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Van Rensburg, Isabelle Louise
URN etd-11052012-174302
Document Title Ondersoek na vingersettingpraktyke van J.S. Bach se tydgenote en die toepassing daarvan op sy klawerbordwerke (Afrikaans)
Degree MMus
Department Music
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof W D Viljoen Supervisor
Keywords
  • J.S. Bach
  • klawerbord
  • historiese uitvoeringspraktyke
  • vingersettings
  • Barok
  • konserwatief
  • progressief
  • tydgenote
  • duim
  • aanslag
  • toonlere
  • vingerkruising
Date 2012-04-17
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Hierdie studie ondersoek die vingersettings wat Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) moontlik gebruik het. Die meeste klawerbordspelers speel een of ander tyd in hul lewe ‘n komposisie van J. S. Bach. Aangesien Bach min inligting oor vingersettings in sy komposisies nagelaat het, bemoeilik dit die taak van die klawerbordspeler om ’n histories-korrekte uitvoering van ’n bepaalde komposisie te lewer. As gevolg hiervan word navorsers genoop om ander bronne te raadpleeg wat kan lei tot ’n beter insig oor sy vingersettingpraktyke. Die bronne naaste aan Bach, dit wil sê sy leerlinge, tydgenote en Bach self verskaf die mees objektiewe inligting oor die aanvaarbare gebruik van vingersettings tydens Bach se leeftyd.

Tydens hierdie ondersoek na historiese vingersettingpraktyke is bevind dat dit verskil van die huidige. Vingersettings vir ‘n komposisie is gekies sodat die nodige artikulasie, ritme en frasering daardeur aangehelp en vergemaklik word. Verskillende lande het verskillende reëls oor die gebruik van vingersettings. Dit sou wenslik wees om, sover prakties moontlik, vingersettings vir ’n komposisie van Bach te probeer gebruik soos hy dit in daardie periode sou gedoen het.

Die Applicatio (BWV 994) en Praeambulum (BWV 930) is die enigste twee komposisies met vingersettings van Bach self. Dit is egter vir die beginner klawerbord-student geskryf en as gevolg hiervan is dit moeilik om vingersettings volgens Bach se praktyke te bepaal vir sy latere en meer gevorderde werke. Vingersettings in hierdie twee komposisies bewys egter dat Bach vroeë vingersettingpraktyke as kind geleer het en dit steeds as geldige vingersettings beskou het.

In die agtiende eeu in Duitsland het ‘n beduidende groep amateur-musikante ontstaan wat onderrig oor die bespeling van die klawerbord benodig het. As gevolg hiervan is verskeie handboeke deur verskillende klawerbordspelers gepubliseer. ʼn Studie hiervan gee insig oor aanvaarbare vingersettingpraktyke en metodes van die tyd. Aangesien dit tydens Bach se leeftyd in Duitsland in gebruik was, is dit heel waarskynlik dat Bach in aanraking gekom het met klawerbordmetodes soos in die handboeke beskryf en moontlik self daarvan vir sy eie spel gebruik het.

Twee verskillende strominge by die gebruik van vingersettings word aangetref tydens Bach se leeftyd, een meer konserwatief, die ander meer progressief. Albei strominge se gebruik van vingersettings is steeds konserwatief in vergelyking met moderne klawerbordspel. Teen die laat agtiende eeu word daar egter wel ‘n meer progressiewe gebruik van vingersettings aangetref.

Bach het soms van sy leerlinge verwag om sy musiek te kopieer en in sommige van die gekopieerde komposisies was vingersettings ingeskryf deur sy leerlinge. Vingersettings in hierdie komposisies kan as ʼn riglyn dien van die vingersettings wat Bach self gebruik het.

Uit hierdie studie is dit duidelik dat daar nie met sekerheid vingersettings volgens Bach se praktyke bepaal kan word nie aangesien min inligting van Bach self kom. Dit is egter moontlik om sekere algemene riglyne daar te stel. Die gevolgtrekking van hierdie studie is dat die vingersettings van Bach reeds heelwat ooreenstem met moderne vingersettingpraktyke, maar dat sekere historiese praktyke steeds ʼn plek gehad het.

ENGLISH : This study investigates the fingering which Johann Sebastian Bach could possibly have used. Some time or another in the life of most keyboard players, they play a composition of J.S. Bach. Since Bach left little information about fingering in his compositions, it makes it difficult for the keyboard player to give an historically correct performance of a particular composition. This results in researchers being forced to consult other sources which may give them more insight into Bach’s fingering practices. The sources closest to Bach, i.e. his pupils, contemporaries and Bach himself, supply the most objective information regarding the acceptable use of fingering during Bach’s lifetime.

During this investigation into historic fingering practices it became evident that they differ from current practices. Fingering for a composition was chosen in order to assist and simplify the required articulation, rhythm and phrasing. Different countries have different rules for the use of fingering practices. It would be desirable to use the actual fingering in a Bach composition that he would have used in his time, if at all practical.

The Applicatio (BWV 994) and Praeambulum (BWV 930) are the only two compositions that include Bach’s own fingering. However, they were written for beginner keyboard players and therefore it is difficult to determine what fingering Bach would have required in his later and more advanced works. Fingering in these two compositions, however, show that Bach’s earlier fingering practices would have been learnt in his childhood and that he must still have regarded them as relevant.

In the eighteenth century, a significant group of amateur musicians in Germany needed instruction on playing the keyboard. As a result a variety of manuals were published by different keyboard players. A study of these gives insight into acceptable fingering practices and methods of this period. As these were used in Germany during Bach’s lifetime, it is probable that he came in contact with keyboard methods described in the manuals and probably used them himself.

Two different approaches to fingering practices, one more conservative, and another more progressive, were used during Bach’s lifetime. Both approaches to fingering are still conservative in comparison with modern keyboard playing. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, however, a more progressive use of fingering came into being.

Bach sometimes required his students to copy his compositions, and fingering was included in some of the students’ copies. These fingering systems can be used as a guideline to those that Bach would have used himself.

It can be deduced from this study that it is not possible to state with any certainty what fingerings were actually used by Bach, as little information came from Bach himself. It is, however, possible to present certain general guidelines. This study concludes that the fingering of Bach’s was in keeping with modern practices, but that certain historical practices were also in use.

Copyright © 2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria

Please cite as follows:

Van Rensburg, IL 2011, ʼn Ondersoek na vingersettingpraktyke van J.S. Bach se tydgenote en die toepassing daarvan op sy klawerbordwerke (Afrikaans), MMus dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-11052012-174302 / >

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