Document Type Doctoral Thesis Author Steyn, Cornelius Stephanus email@example.com URN etd-11052008-124000 Document Title Persoonlikheidstyle by erediensgangers : ŉ prakties-teologiese ondersoek na die uitdagings wat aan die liturg gestel word om erediensgangers van alle MBTI® persoonlikheidstyle effektief in eredienste te kan aanspreek (Afrikaans) Degree PhD Department Practical Theology Supervisor
Advisor Name Title Prof H J C Pieterse Co-Supervisor Prof C J A Vos Supervisor Keywords
- worship service
- Myers-Briggs type indicator®
- Myers en Briggs
- Myers and Briggs
- personality types
Date 2008-09-04 Availability unrestricted Abstract
This thesis expresses a thorough conceptual and theoretical investigation of the liturgical challenges a liturgist (preacher) faces to address worshippers of all MBTI® (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®) personality types effectively in public sermons. The investigation is focused on the conceptualizing of psychological factors and the effects thereof that need to be taken into account by liturgists in a public worship service. The scientific aim of the thesis is to give liturgists a theoretical grasp on the hermeneutical factors, liturgical demands and homiletical challenges that any preacher should calculate in addressing worshippers with different and often ‘conflicting’ personality types and needs in a public sermon.
I have chosen the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® as psychometric instrument which consists out of sixteen unique and different personality types that are described in a four letter combination. This combination describes a person’s preferred orientation to the world (extroversion or introversion), his/her preferred way of gathering information (sensing or intuition), his/her preferred way of decision making (thinking or feeling) and the preferred lifestyle he/she adopts (judging or perceiving). The MBTI® builds on the insights of the well-known Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung, the father of analytical psychology as well as the efforts of the formidable mother and daughter combination, Isabel Myers and Katharine Briggs.
The reason for this choice is because the MBTI® proofs to be the most distinctive and effective instrument for comprehensively addressing spirituality and type. On the one hand the MBTI® is ‘friendly’ and intelligible enough to be taken into account by any congregation and liturgist while on the other hand it is a thorough and comprehensive psychometric instrument with sound subjacent psychological and scientific principles. Jung distinguished two opposite energizing orientations to the world, extraversion and introversion and four mental functions, the two opposite ways of taking in information (sensing and intuition) and the two opposite ways of ordering (organizing) the information that’s been taken in (thinking and feeling). In addition, Isabel Myers and Katharine Briggs added two preferred opposite lifestyles, an organized planned lifestyle (judging) and an adaptive spontaneous lifestyle (perceiving). Out of these combined distinctions the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® was born.
The investigation is conveyed in two distinct phases namely a theoretical- and a conclusive phase. The thesis consists out of four parts. Part 1 (Chapters 1 and 2) covers the introduction, an explanation of the methodology and the preliminary description of the concepts in the title of the thesis and other relevant concepts for example ‘liturgy’. The title of the thesis is: Personality types in worshippers: A practical-theological investigation of the challenges a preacher faces to address worshippers of all MBTI® (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®) personality types effectively in sermons. A bilingual list of keywords is included at the beginning of the thesis to enhance continuous research and investigation.
Part 2 encompasses the rest of the theoretical phase of the investigation. It consists out of a theoretical exposition of practical-theological principles like hermeneutics and homiletics (Chapter 3), an explanation of three important hermeneutical exponents Gadamer, Habermas and Ricoeur (Chapter 4), other distinctive factors that should be taken into account by the liturgist in the construction and presentation of a worship service (Chapter 5), the discussion of personality and personality types (Chapter 6), the evaluation of several psychological and psychometric instruments that could contribute to the investigation (Chapter 7), the exposition of Jung’s psychological model subjacent to the MBTI® (Chapter 8), an explanation of the theoretical foundation of the MBTI® (Chapter 9) and a comprehensive and extensive exposition of the sixteen distinctive MBTI® personality types (Chapter 10).
Part 3 of the thesis consists out of Chapters 11 and 12 and encompasses the conclusive phase of the investigation. The aim of the investigation was to foster appreciation and insight in the dynamics, interaction and co-operation of the MBTI® factors, -combinations and sixteen -personality types in worshippers, so that liturgists and congregations can plan the composition and presentation of worship services accordingly. It will help to lessen the communication hindrances in the presenting and accepting of the Gospel in a worship service. The following practical question is answered in Part 3: What knowledge and insight needs to be fostered within preachers, church councils and congregations in order to accommodate and utilize the needs and strengths of the different personality types so that effective communication of the Gospel can take place in die worship service, where all personality types are potentially included? Preachers and congregations are helped to practically and liturgically address worshippers of all 16 MBTI® personality types.
In Chapter 11 general challenges and demands that a liturgist (preacher) faces to address worshippers of all the MBTI® personality types effectively in a public sermon, are addressed. Other determining factors like needs, expectations, theological-anthropological perspectives, spirituality, conflicting timeframes, different generations, stages of psychological- and faith development, selective moments, politics, relationships, social contexts, clothing, moods, language, culture, sexuality, gender roles and defence meganisms are also calculated. The determining and role of personality types (in liturgist and worshippers) and the practical implications and challenges of distinct MBTI® factors and -combinations are addressed. The hermeneutical-, liturgical- and homiletical challenges and demands of the various factors are calculated. The chapter ends by calculating other practical demands and suggestions like different types of worship sermons, alternating worship services, the alternating of liturgical elements in one sermon and the developing of a specific and deliberate style and identity in a worship service.
In Chapter 12 the specific demands and challenges that the liturgist faces to effectively address worshippers of all sixteen MBTI® personality types in sermons, are addressed. Hermeneutical-, liturgical- and homiletical challenges and demands with regard to each of the sixteen MBTI® personality types are taken practically into account in a communicative theory of practice. Hermeneutical challenges helps liturgists to spiritually understand each personality type better. With regard to liturgical presentation and construction, the liturgical suggestions enhance the accommodation and involvement of every personality type in the public sermon. Homiletical proposals contribute to the effective preaching, heralding and receiving of the Gospel in the public worship service, so that worshippers of every personality style can be addressed in the public worship service. Other liturgists are invited to freely add their experience and insight in the practical application of the hermeneutical-, liturgical- and homiletical suggestions and proposals.
Part 4 concludes the thesis with a short summary and an extensive exposition of literature references in a Bibliography according to an adapted Harvard method.
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