Title page for ETD etd-10212009-173521


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Stassen, Frans Johannes Nicolaas
Email nstassen@proteaboekhuis.co.za
URN etd-10212009-173521
Document Title Die Afrikaners se laaste halfeeu in Angola, 1928-1975 (Afrikaans)
Degree DPhil
Department Historical and Heritage Studies
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof F Pretorius Co-Supervisor
Prof J S Bergh Supervisor
Keywords
  • Portugal
  • Dorslandtrek
  • Angola-Boere
  • diaspora
  • Angola
  • migrasie
  • Afrikaners
  • identiteit
Date 2009-09-01
Availability restricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: Gedurende die laat negentiende eeu het verskeie georganiseerde trekke die Zuid- Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) verlaat. Die eerste van hierdie trekke het in Mei 1874 vertrek. Nadat die eerste drie trekke verenig het, het die trekkers hulle ná bykans sewe jaar in Januarie 1881 by Humpata op die Huíla-hoogland in die Portugese kolonie Angola gevestig. Veral die tweede trek is gekenmerk deur onbeskryflike lyding as gevolg van honger en dors in die Kalahariwoestyn en malaria aan die Okavango. Vanaf 1892 tot 1894 het drie verdere groot trekke gevolg. Ná die laaste groot trek in 1907 het die Portugese owerheid verdere Boeretrekke verbied. Mettertyd het die trekkers hulle ook op ander plekke op die hooglande van Angola gevestig en ’n groot Afrikaanse gemeenskap gevorm. Hulle het ’n bestaan gemaak uit hoofsaaklik veeboerdery, jag en transportry. Hul bestaansmoontlikhede het mettertyd al hoe minder geword. In 1928 is ongeveer 2000 Angola-Boere na Suidwes-Afrika gerepatrieer.

Hierdie studie ondersoek die gemeenskap Afrikaners wat tussen 1928 en 1975 in Angola gewoon het. Daar word aangetoon dat die geografie, bevolkingsamestelling en ekonomiese ontwikkeling, sowel as die historiese verloop van gebeure in Angola in die algemeen as ’n Portugese kolonie tot 1975, ’n belangrike invloed op die geskiedenis en nedersettingspatroon van die Angola-Boere uitgeoefen het.

Die gemeenskap van 386–471 Afrikaners wat ná 1928 in Angola agtergebly het, is aan die vergetelheid en verwaarlosing oorgelaat en is later as ’n “lewende fossiel” en slagoffers van hulle eie behoudendheid bestempel. Mettertyd het grootskaalse verarming ingetree en die meerderheid kon nie meer ’n menswaardige bestaan in Angola voer nie. Sommige het wel nog ’n lewe uit gemengde boerdery, transportry en jag probeer maak, dekades nadat hierdie lewenswyse elders uitgesterf het. Die behuising, kleredrag en vervoermiddele van sommige persone het die tekens van hulle armoede getoon.

Die band met hulle volksgenote in Suid-Afrika is lewend gehou deur enkele Afrikaanse boeke, tydskrifte en koerante, asook radio-uitsendings, volksfeeste en periodieke besoeke van predikante van die Hervormde Kerk. Die opvoeding van die kinders is grootliks verwaarloos en slegs enkele kinders het ’n skoolopleiding geniet. Op kerklike gebied het hulle eweneens agteruitgegaan en hulle het, met die uitsondering van ’n tydperk van vyf jaar, slegs ’n paar kortstondige besoeke van Hervormde predikante ontvang.

Op maatskaplike gebied het die meerderheid Angola-Boere ’n hoë sedelike peil gehandhaaf. Sommige persone se sedelike peil was nogtans kommerwekkend laag en enkele gevalle van losbandigheid, “verportugesing” en verhoudinge oor die kleurskeidslyn het voorgekom. Die verhoudinge met ander bevolkingsgroepe – die Portugese koloniste, die inheemse bevolking en die “mak volk” – was normaalweg goed, maar die meerderheid Angola- Boere het hulself as ’n aparte etniese groep geïdentifiseer en hierdie identiteit gehandhaaf.

Aandag word geskenk aan die redes vir besluite wat individue van hierdie diasporagemeenskap op verskillende tye geneem het om óf in Angola te bly óf om weer te trek. Vanaf 1958 tot 1963 is die meerderheid van die ongeveer 600 Afrikaners in Angola na Suidwes-Afrika en Suid-Afrika gerepatrieer, terwyl die res in Angola agtergebly het. Hierdie groepie Afrikaners het hul Afrikanerskap daar onder moeilike omstandighede gehandhaaf. Met die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog in 1975 in Angola het die laaste Afrikaners uit Angola gevlug en het die verbintenis van die Angola-Boere met Angola ná byna ’n eeu tot ’n einde gekom.

Hoewel die nalatenskap van die Angola-Boere in Angola relatief gering is, het hulle oor ’n lang tyd merkwaardige deursettingsvermoë in moeilike omstandighede aan die dag gelê.

ENGLISH: During the late nineteenth century a number of organized treks left the South African Republic (ZAR). The first of these treks left in May 1874. Seven years later, in January 1881, and after the amalgamation of the first three treks, the trekkers settled at Humpata on the Huíla highlands in the Portuguese colony of Angola. The second of these treks in particular was marked by suffering beyond description as a result of hunger and thirst in the Kalahari Desert and malaria near the Okavango. From 1892 to 1894 three further major treks followed. After the last major trek in 1907 the Portuguese government prohibited further treks. In time, the trekkers also settled elsewhere on the highlands of Angola and formed a large Afrikaner community. They made a living mainly from stock farming, hunting and transport riding. In time their means of livelihood were reduced. In 1928 about 2000 Angola Boers were repatriated to South-West Africa.

This study investigates this community of Afrikaners who lived in Angola between 1928 and 1975. It is shown that the geography of Angola, the composition of its population and its economic development, as well as Angola’s historical development in general until 1975 as a Portuguese colony, had a major influence on the history and settlement patterns of the Angola Boers.

The community of 386–471 Afrikaners that remained in Angola after 1928 fell into oblivion and neglect and was described as a “living fossil” and the victim of its own conservatism. The majority still practised mixed farming, transport riding and hunting, decades after this way of life had become obsolete elsewhere. In time, futher large-scale impoverishment set in and the majority could no longer make a decent living in Angola. Their housing, clothing and modes of transport bore witness to their poverty.

The ties with their kindred in South Africa were kept vibrant by a few books, magazines and newspapers, as well as radio broadcasts, popular celebrations and the periodic visits by ministers of the Hervormde Kerk. The education of their children was, to a large extent, neglected and only a few children benefited from a primary education. In religious matters too they showed signs of deterioration. With the exception of a period of five years they only received a few periodic visits from ministers of the Hervormde Kerk.

Socially, the majority of the Angola Boers maintained highly moral standards. However, some members of the community were alarmingly depraved and a number of cases of licentiousness, acceptance of Portuguese mores and relationships with people of colour occurred.

Normally, relations with other ethnic groups – the Portuguese colonists, the indigenous population and the “mak volk” (their erstwhile labourers and slaves) – were good but the majority of Angola Boers identified themselves as a separate ethnic group and preserved this identity.

Attention is given to the reasons for the decisions by individuals of this diaspora community at different times to either stay in Angola or migrate again. From 1958 to 1963 the majority of the 600 Afrikaners in Angola were repatriated to South-West Africa and South Africa, while a number stayed in Angola. There, this small community of Afrikaners preserved its ethnic identity under difficult circumstances. In 1975, with the outbreak of civil war in Angola, the last Afrikaners fled Angola and, after nearly a century, the ties of the Angola Boers with Angola were severed.

Although the legacy of the Angola Boers is relatively small, they showed remarkable perseverance over a considerable period of time and under difficult circumstances.

© 2009 Author.

Please cite as follows:

Stassen, FJN 2009, Die Afrikaners se laaste halfeeu in Angola, 1928–1975, DPhil thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10212009-173521/ >

D659/ag

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