Title page for ETD etd-10212008-143532


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Sinha, Saurabh
URN etd-10212008-143532
Document Title A multi-dimensional spread spectrum transceiver
Degree PhD
Department Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof M du Plessis Committee Chair
Prof L P Linde Committee Co-Chair
Keywords
  • DLL
  • complex spreading sequences
  • VCO
  • Costa’s loop
  • delay locked loop
  • SS
  • class F power amplifier
  • PA
  • voltage controlled oscillator
  • CMOS
  • spreispektrum
  • KSS
  • komplementęre metaaloksied-halfgeleier
  • Costa se lus
  • komplekse spreisekwenssies
  • vertragingsluitlus
  • VSL
  • SBO
  • spanningsbeheerde ossilleerder
  • menger
  • CSS
  • complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
  • CMOS
  • spread spectrum
  • mixer
  • on-chip inductors
  • op-skyfie induktors
  • klas F-kragversterker
  • KV
Date 2009-04-21
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

The research conducted for this thesis seeks to understand issues associated with integrating a direct spread spectrum system (DSSS) transceiver on to a single chip. Various types of sequences, such as Kasami sequences and Gold sequences, are available for use in typical spread spectrum systems. For this thesis, complex spreading sequences (CSS) are used for improved cross-correlation and autocorrelation properties that can be achieved by using such a sequence.

While CSS and DSSS are well represented in the existing body of knowledge, and discrete bulky hardware solutions exist – an effort to jointly integrate CSS and DSSS on-chip was identified to be lacking. For this thesis, spread spectrum architecture was implemented focussing on sub-systems that are specific to CSS. This will be the main contribution for this thesis, but the contribution is further appended by various RF design challenges: highspeed requirements make RF circuits sensitive to the effects of parasitics, including parasitic inductance, passive component modelling, as well as signal integrity issues.

The integration is first considered more ideally, using mathematical sub-systems, and then later implemented practically using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The integration involves mixed-signal and radio frequency (RF) design techniques – and final integration involves several specialized analogue sub-systems, such as a class F power amplifier (PA), a low-noise amplifier (LNA), and LC voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). The research also considers various issues related to on-chip inductors, and also considers an active inductor implementation as an option for the VCO. With such an inductor a better quality factor is achievable. While some conventional sub-system design techniques are deployed, several modifications are made to adapt a given sub-system to the design requirements for this thesis. The contribution of the research lies in the circuit level modifications done at sub-system level aimed towards eventual integration. For multiple-access communication systems, where a number of independent users are required to share a common channel, the transceiver proposed in this thesis, can contribute towards improved data rate or bit error rate.

The design is completed for fabrication in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process with minimal external components. With an active chip area of about 5 mm2, the simulated transmitter consumes about 250 mW & the receiver consumes about 200 mW.

AFRIKAANS : Die navorsing wat vir hierdie tesis onderneem is, beoog om kundigheid op te bou aangaande die kwessies wat met die integrasie van ‘n direkte spreispektrumstelsel (DSSS) sender-ontvanger op ‘n enkele skyfie verband hou. Verskeie tipes sekwensies, soos byvoorbeeld Kasami- en Gold-sekwensies, is vir gebruik in tipiese spreispektrumstelsels beskikbaar. Vir hierdie tesis is komplekse spreisekwensies (KSS) gebruik vir verbeterde kruis- en outokorrelasie-eienskappe wat bereik kan word deur so ‘n sekwensie te gebruik.

Alhoewel DSSS en KSS reeds welbekend is, en diskrete hardeware oplossings reeds bestaan, is die vraag na gesamentlike geďntegreerde DSSS en KSS op een vlokkie geďdentifiseer. Vir hierdie tesis is spreispektrumargitektuur aangewend met die klem op KSS substelsels. Dit is dan ook die belangrikste bydrae van hierdie tesis, maar die bydrae gaan verder gepaard met verskeie RF-ontwerpuitdagings: hoëspoed-vereistes maak RF-stroombane sensitief vir die uitwerking van parasitiese komponente, met inbegrip van parasitiese induktansie, passiewe komponentmodellering en ook seinintegriteitskwessies.

Die integrasie word eerstens meer idealisties oorweeg deur wiskundige substelsels te gebruik en dan later prakties te implementeer deur komplementęre metaaloksied-halfgeleiertegnologie (CMOS) te gebruik. Die integrasie behels gemengdesein- en radiofrekwensie(RF)-ontwerptegnieke – en finale integrasie behels verskeie gespesialiseerde analoë substelsels soos ‘n klas F-kragversterker (KV), ‘n laeruis-versterker (LRV), en LC-spanningbeheerde ossileerders (SBO’s). Die navorsing oorweeg ook verskeie kwessies in verband met op-skyfie induktors en oorweeg ook ‘n aktiewe induktorimplementering as ‘n opsie vir die SBO. Met sodanige induktor is ‘n beter kwaliteitsfaktor haalbaar. Hoewel enkele konvensionele substelsel-ontwerptegnieke aangewend word, word daar verskeie wysigings aangebring om ‘n gegewe substelsel by die ontwerpvereistes vir hierdie tesis aan te pas. Die bydrae van die navorsing is hoofsaaklik die stroombaanmodifikasies wat gedoen is op substelselvlak om integrasie te vergemaklik. Vir veelvoudige-toegang kommunikasiestelsels waar ‘n aantal onafhanklike gebruikers dieselfde seinkanaal moet deel, kan die sender-ontvanger voorgestel in hierdie tesis meewerk om die datatempo en fouttempo te verbeter.

Die ontwerp is voltooi vir vervaardiging in ‘n standaard 0.35-μm CMOS-proses met minimale eksterne komponente. Met ‘n aktiewe skyfie-oppervlakte van ongeveer 5 mm2, verbruik die gesimuleerde sender ongeveer 250 mW en die ontvanger verbruik ongeveer 200 mW.

©2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Sinha, S 2008, A multi-dimensional spread spectrum transceiver, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10212008-143532/ >

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