Title page for ETD etd-10202009-123429


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Barkhuizen, Cordelia
URN etd-10202009-123429
Document Title Wes-Rand streek gesondheidsklinieke as konteks vir vroeŽ kommunikasie intervensie (VKI)(Afrikaans)
Degree MCommunication Pathology
Department Communication Pathology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof A M Kritzinger Co-Supervisor
Prof B Louw Supervisor
Keywords
  • primÍre gesondheidsorgklinieke
  • Suid-Afrikaanse konteks
  • primary health care clinics
  • South-Africa
  • vroeŽ kommunikasie intervensie
  • early communication intervention
  • gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges
  • gemeenskapsdiensjaarterapeute
  • community nurseís
  • community service therapists
Date 2009-04-15
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

AFRIKAANS : Rasionaal: Die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks is heterogeen van aard en word gekenmerk deur ʼn kontinuum van ontwikkelende tot ontwikkelde gesondheidsdienste. Daar word beraam dat 55% van kinders (0-3 jaar) in landelike Suid-Afrikaanse gebiede woon, waar armoede heers en die infrastruktuur onvoldoende is. Die ongunstige omgewings omstandighede van talle kinders woonagtig in Suid-Afrika verhoog die risiko vir gestremdhede en plaas babas en kleuters in ʼn groter gevaar vir die ontwikkeling van ʼn kommunikasieafwyking, wat die behoefte aan effektiewe VroeŽ Kommunikasie Intervensie (VKI) dienslewering in diť konteks beklemtoon. PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke (PGS) kan beskou word as die ideale konteks binne die Suid-Afrikaanse realiteit waar VKI programme en VKI dienslewering geÔmplementeer kan word. Deur VKI dienslewering binne die PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke te implementeer, kan samewerkende dienslewering tussen VKI en PrimÍre Gesondheidsorg verhoog word. Beide die PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgmodel en die VKI benadering stel voorkoming en die vroeŽ identifikasie van afwykings as sentrale doelwit voor. Die implementering van VKI in die Suid-Afrikaanse Gesondheidsorgsisteem is deur talle navorsers geÔdentifiseer as die wyse waarop die dienste aan babas en kleuters wat ʼn risiko toon vir die ontwikkeling van ʼn kommunikasieafwyking bevorder kan word.

Deur die implementering van VKI dienslewering op die vlak van PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke, kan die basiese beginsels van VKI naamlik, dienslewering wat gemeenskapsgebaseerd, familie-gesentreerd, omvattend en gekoŲrdineerd is, geÔmplementeer word.

Doel: Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal in watter mate Gesondheidsorgklinieke in die Wes-Rand streek as konteks vir die toepassing van VKI kan dien.

Metode: ʼn Beskrywende kwantitatiewe opname is as navorsingsontwerp vir beide fases benut. Ten einde die doel van die studie te bereik, is die navorsing in twee fases uitgevoer, omdat die navorsingsproses kronologiese verloop het en daar eerstens in fase een gefokus is op die konteks vir diensverskaffing, en tweedens in fase twee op die diensverskaffers. Fase een het ʼn konteks analise behels om sodoende die fisiese konteks waarbinne die sorggewers en hul kinders wat ʼn risiko vertoon vir die ontwikkeling van ʼn kommunikasieprobleem dienste ontvang, te beskryf en te evalueer deur die voltooiing van ʼn afmerklys wat vooraf deur die navorser opgestel is. Fase twee het ʼn triangulasie navorsingsmetode benut deur gebruik te maak van ʼn gestruktureerde onderhoudskedule, sowel as die voltooiing van ʼn opgestelde vraelys. Die afmerklys in fase een, die gestruktureerde onderhoudskedule, en die vraelys in fase twee het as data-insamelingstegnieke vir die navorsingsprojek gedien.

Respondente en Deelnemers: Vir Fase 1 is 12 PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke in die drie sub-distrikte van die Wes-Rand distrik benut vir die konteksanalise. Vir Fase 2 is agt terapeute in hulle gemeenskapsdiensjaar wat werksaam is in die Wes-Rand distrik as deelnemers benut vir die bespreking van die vooraf geÔdentifiseerde temas gedurende die gestruktureerde onderhoudskedule. 34 gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges van die Wes-Rand distrik is as respondente gebruik vir die voltooiing van die vraelys.

Bevindinge: Die bevindinge het daarop gedui dat die PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke nie voldoende toegerus is vir die verskaffing van VKI dienslewering nie, ten spyte van die teenwoordigheid van risikofaktore onder die kliniekpopulasie. Verder was daar geen VKI bemarkings-, evaluasie- en intervensiemateriaal in die klinieke beskikbaar nie. Resultate het egter daarop gedui dat daar op ʼn weeklikse basis by elkeen van die PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke die moontlikheid bestaan van ʼn VKI span, aangesien daar ʼn spraak-taalterapeut, arbeidsterapeut, fisioterapeut, dieetkundige, maatskaplike werker, mediese dokter en verpleegkundige weekliks op dieselfde dag beskikbaar is.

Die gemeenskapdiensjaarterapeute was positief ten opsigte van vroeŽ identifikasie en sekondÍre voorkoming as sleutelkomponente van VKI. In teenstelling met die terapeute se positiwiteit t.o.v. vroeŽ identifikasie en voorkoming en in ooreenstemming met die bevindinge in Fase 1, was die terapeute van mening dat VKI tans nie suksesvol binne die PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke geÔmplementeer sal kan word. Die gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges se kennis rakende VKI en aspekte wat verband hou met VKI was nie bevredigend nie. Die verpleegkundiges se houding jeens ʼn spanbenadering was positief, wat aan die spraak-taalterapeute die geleentheid bied om in samewerking met die verpleegkundiges die implementering van VKI binne hierdie konteks te motiveer en te implementeer.

Gevolgtrekking: Die resultate van die navorsing hou implikasies in vir die rol van die spraak-taalterapeut ten opsigte van gemeenskapsgebaseerde intervensie, voorkoming, vroeŽ identifikasie, en die opleiding en bemagtiging van sorggewers en spanlede wat betref VKI binne die Suid-Afrikaanse PrimÍre Gesondheidsorgklinieke. Die behoefte aan verdere navorsing in die veld is deur die bevindinge van die studie beklemtoon.

ENGLISH : Rationale: The South- African context is a heterogeneous context that is characterized by a continuum of developing to developed health care services. It is estimated that 55% of children (0 to 3 years) live in rural areas with insufficient infrastructure and under extreme conditions of poverty. Children living in South Africa are at greater risk for the development of a communication disorder due to the unfavourable environmental circumstances that they live in, which emphasizes the need for Early Communication Intervention (ECI) services in South Africa. Primary Health Care Clinics can be seen as the ideal context within South Africa where ECI programs and service delivery can be implemented. Both the Primary Health Care Model and the principles of ECI service delivery focuses on prevention and early identification of developmental disorders as their main goal. Many authors view the implementation of ECI in South Africaís health system as the way in which the appropriate services can be provided to babies and infants that are at-risk for a communication disorder. Implementing ECI on the level of the Primary Healthcare will allow for the provision of services that are in accordance with the basic principles of service delivery stipulated by ASHA (1989), namely services that are community-based, family-centered, coordinated and comprehensive.

Aim: The main purpose of the study was to determine the degree in which the Primary Health Care Clinics in the West-Rand district can be used for the implementation of Early Communication Intervention (ECI).

Method: An exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was implemented for both phases, which incorporated both quantitative and qualitative paradigms. This study was conducted in two phases. In Phase One a context analysis was conducted, where by a checklist was completed by the researcher, in order to describe and evaluate the context where children who are at risk for the development of a communication disorder, and their parents, may receive services. In Phase two a triangulation method was followed and the researcher made use of a structured interview to discuss the themes and a questionnaire in order to obtain information regarding the perception of the nurses and community service therapists on ECI services and the implementation of ECI services in the Primary Health Care Clinics. The checklist in phase one, the structured interview, and the questionnaire in phase two were used as data collection methods during this research project.

Respondents and Participants: For the context analysis in Phase One, 12 Primary Health Care Clinics in the West-Rand district were used. Phase Two utilized 8 therapists as participants that were employed by the Wes-Rand health district to complete their community service year. 34 community nurses, employed by the West-Rand district were utilized as respondents and completed the questionnaire.

Results: The findings of the study indicated that the Primary Health Care Clinics were not appropriately equipped for the implementation of ECI service delivery, despite the presence of risk-factors under babies and children visiting the clinics. There were no available ECI marketing-, assessment-, and intervention material at the clinics. It is promising to have found that there is the possibility of the implementation of an ECI team at each of the clinics, seeing that there is a speech-language therapist, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, dietician, social worker, medical doctor and nurse available on the same day on a weekly basis.

The community service therapists were positive regarding early identification and the secondary prevention of communication disorders as key components of the ECI process. In contrast with their positive attitudes towards these aspects, they were of the opinion that due to proposed challenges in this context, at this stage, it will not be possible to implement the ECI process in the Primary Health Care Clinics. The community nurseís knowledge regarding ECI and the aspects related to ECI were not appropriate. Despite this, they demonstrated a positive attitude towards the implementation of a team approach, which gives the speech-language therapistís the opportunity to work with the nursing staff in a team approach, to implement ECI within the Primary Health Care Clinics.

The participants in Phase Two were aware of the importance of ECI and the need for ECI services in this context, but they were of the opinion that the implementation of ECI in this Primary Health Care Context would not be possible due to a variety of reasons. The respondents in Phase Two demonstrated inappropriate knowledge and awareness regarding ECI, communication development, communication disorders and the role of the speech-language therapist and audiologist in the Primary Health Care Context. The majority of the respondents were positive about in-service ECI training, regardless of their limited knowledge thereof.

Conclusion: The results have implications for the role of the speech-language therapist in terms of community-based intervention, prevention, early identification, parent training and informing colleagues about ECI within the South African Primary Health Care Clinics. The need for further research in this field is emphasized.

Copyright © 2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Barkhuizen, C 2008, Wes-Rand streek gesondheidsklinieke as konteks vir vroeŽ kommunikasie intervensie (VKI), MCommunication Pathology dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10202009-123429/ >

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