Title page for ETD etd-10172009-123339


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Hoffman, Daniel Cornelius Johannes
Email daniehoffman@absamail.co.za
URN etd-10172009-123339
Document Title Die effek van SHIP® (spontaneheling intrasistemiese proses) by adolessente tennisspelers (Afrikaans)
Degree DPhil
Department Biokinetics, Sport and Leisure Sciences
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof B J M Steyn
Keywords
  • kliniese intervensieprogram
  • spontaneous healing intrasystemic process
  • spontaneheling intrasistemiese proses
  • intervention programme
  • adolescent tennis players
  • adolessente tennisspelers
Date 2009-09-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

AFRIKAANS: Die navorsing handel oor die effek van SHIP® (Spontaneheling Intrasistemiese Proses) by adolessente tennisspelers en die waarde daarvan ten opsigte van die ontwikkeling van sielkundige potensiaal van spelers.

Tradisioneel word Sportsielkunde vanaf ‘n kliniese konteks gevoed. Dit is ‘n dinamiese veld wat voordurend op soek is na nog verdere tegnologiese ontwikkeling. Die waarde van die studie is dat dit die eerste keer is dat ‘n hele kliniese intervensieprogram suiwer in ‘n sportkonteks toegepas word.

Die doel van die studie is om te bepaal wat die moontlike sielkundige bydrae van SHIP® op die sielkunde van die tennisspeler is. Die intervensie SHIP® het tussen vier tot ses maande geduur met ‘n gemiddeld van tien sessies per speler waar ‘n sessie een uur lank duur.

‘n Totaal van tien adolessente tennisspelers wat verbonde is aan ‘n tennisskool is vir die studie gebruik. Die spelers wat aan die studie deelgeneem het bestaan uit vier manlike en ses vroulike tennisspelers. Die eksperimentele groep bestaan uit ses tennisspelers (twee manlik en vier vroulik) wat ‘n reeks psigometriese toetse afgelê het en deur SHIP® behandel is. Die kontrole groep bestaan uit vier tennisspelers (twee manlik en twee vroulik) wat nie deur SHIP® behandel is nie, maar wel die psigometriese toetse afgelê het.

Die studie maak gebruik van ‘n tradisionele eksperimentele ontwerp wat van ‘n eksperimentele en kontrole groep gebruik maak. Verder leen die studie aspekte van Pieterse (2004) se enkelproefpersoonnavorsingsontwerp. Die ontwerp behels onderhoude wat met al die spelers gevoer is, voor die intervensie. Die onderhoude handel oor die spelers se sterkpunte, swakpunte en belewenis van angs en stres tydens tenniswedstryde. Na die intervensie is daar onderhoude met die afrigters en drie spelers gevoer om te bepaal of daar enige verandering by die spelers plaasgevind het.

Die resultate van die studie toon ‘n afname in kognitiewe en liggaamlike angs van die eksperimentele groep met geen beduidende veranderinge by die kontrole groep nie. Al hierdie veranderinge is beduidend op die 5% peil van betekenis. Ten opsigte van selfvertroue het beide groepe ‘n statisties beduidende verandering getoon op die 10% peil van betekenis. Die eksperimentele groep het egter ‘n beduidende toename getoon terwyl die kontrole groep se tellings op die subskaal beduidend afgeneem het. Die spanning-angs toetstellings van die kontrole groepe was beduidend hoër as die eksperimentele groep. Hierdie verskil was beduidend op die 10% peil van betekenis. Die depressie en woede-vyandigheid toetstellings van die kontrole groep was ook statisties hoër as die eksperimentele groep na die intervensie. Hierdie verskille was beduidend op die 5% peil van betekenis. Die resultate van die analise binne groepe, toon dat die vigortellings van die eksperimentele groep beduidend toegeneem het, terwyl die afname in die kontrole groep se tellings nie beduidend was nie. Hierdie statisties beduidende veranderinge in die eksperimentele groep was beduidend op die 5% peil van betekenis. Die afgematheid telling van die eksperimentele groep het beduidend afgeneem oor die tyd met geen beduidende verandering in die kontrole groep nie. Hierdie verandering was beduidend op die 10% peil van betekenis. Die verwarringtellings van die eksperimentele groep het beduidend afgeneem, met geen beduidende veranderings in die kontrole groep nie. Die verandering was beduidend op die 5% peil van betekenis. Die outonomiteitssubskaaltelling van die eksperimentele groep het statisties beduidend toegeneem. Die verandering was beduidend op die 10% peil van betekenis. Geen beduidende verandering het ten opsigte van hierdie subskaal by die kontrole groep plaasgevind nie. Die kontrole groepe het ‘n statisties beduidende afname in die positiewe verhoudingssubskaal getoon. Ten opsigte van entiteitsingesteldheid het die kontrole groep ‘n beduidende toename in die tellings getoon. Hierdie toename was beduidend op die 10% peil van betekenis alhoewel die eksperimentele groep se tellings ook toegeneem het, was dit nie statisties beduidend nie. Uit die onderhoude met die spelers en afrigters na die intervensie is dit duidelik dat die eksperimentele groep gegroei het ten opsigte van aandag en konsentrasiebeheer, die hantering van stres en angs en genot tydens tenniswedstryde.

ENGLISH: This study examines the effect of SHIP® (Spontaneous Healing Intrasystemic Process) on adolescent tennis players and its advantages in accordance with the development of the players’ potential.

Traditionally Sport Psychology has evolved from a clinical context. It is a dynamic field that is always open to further technological development. The value of the study lies in the fact that it is the first time that an entire clinical intervention programme is applied in a purely sports context.

The goal of the study is to determine the possible psychological effects that SHIP® might have on the psychology of tennis players. The SHIP® intervention lasted between four to six months, with an average of ten sessions per player, and each session lasting one hour. A total of ten adolescent tennis players who attend a tennis school participated in the study. Of these players, four were male and six female.

The experimental group consisted of six tennis players (two male and four female) who completed a battery of psychometric tests and went through SHIP®. The control group consisted of four tennis players (two male and two female) who completed the psychometric tests, but were not put through SHIP® .

The study made use of a traditional experimental design, consisting of an experimental and a control group. In addition, the study also employed aspects of Pieterse’s (2004) single subject design. Specific aspects of this design that were applied, include interviews conducted with all the players prior to the intervention. The interviews focused on the players’ strong points, weak points and their experience of anxiety and stress during tennis matches. Follow-up interviews were conducted with three players and their coaches after the intervention, to determine if the players had experienced any change.

The results of the study point toward a decrease in the cognitive and physical anxiety of the experimental group, with no significant changes manifesting in the control group. All these changes are significant on the 5%-level of significance. With regard to self-confidence, both groups showed a statistically meaningful change on the 10%-level of significance. The experimental group scores showed a significant increase, while the control group scores on this subscale decreased significantly. The stress-anxiety test scores of the control group were significantly higher than those of the experimental group. This difference was meaningful on the 10%-level of significance. The depression and anger test scores of the control group were statistically higher than those of the experimental group after the intervention. These changes were meaningful on the 5%-level of significance. The results of the analysis within groups, showed that the vigor scores of the experimental group had increased significantly, while the decrease in the control group scores was of no significance. These statistical changes in the experimental group were meaningful on the 5%-level of significance. The fatigue scores of the experimental group decreased significantly over time, with no significant changes in the control group. These changes were meaningful on the 10%-level of significance. The confusion scores of the experimental group decreased significantly, with no significant changes in the control group. This change was meaningful on the 5%-level of significance. The autonomy subscale scores of the experimental group increased statistically significantly. This change was meaningful on the 10%-level of significance. No significant change occurred in the control group with regard to this subscale. The control group showed a statistically significant decrease in the positive relationship subscale. This change was meaningful on the 10%-level of significance. The experimental group showed no significant change with regard to this scale. With regard to the entity mindset, the control group showed a significant increase in scores. This increase was meaningful on the 10%-level of significance. Although the experimental group scores also increased, the scores were not statistically significant. From the interviews with the players and coaches after the intervention, it became clear that the experimental group had grown in terms of attention and concentration control, coping with stress and anxiety, and pleasure experienced during tennis matches.

© 2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Hoffman, DCJ 2008, Die effek van SHIP® (spontaneheling intrasistemiese proses) by adolessente tennisspelers, DPhil thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10172009-123339/ >

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