Title page for ETD etd-10172009-111913

Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Endres, Annelize
Email aendres@intekom.co.za
URN etd-10172009-111913
Document Title Getraumatiseerde adolessente se soeke na hoop : ‘n pastorale model (Afrikaans)
Degree PhD
Department Practical Theology
Advisor Name Title
Prof Y Dreyer Supervisor
  • perspective on the organism
  • perspective on the meganism
  • the ecological system theory
  • maturing
  • development
  • acute trauma
  • absolute profanity
  • getraumatiseerde adolessente
  • soeke na hoop
  • adolescents
  • tremens
  • chronic trauma
Date 2009-09-01
Availability unrestricted
South Africa has a high incidence of crime where violence is particularly being committed against adolescents. Trauma has a disruptive influence on the development of adolescents. There is a lack of research focussing on pastoral counselling from a postmodern perspective regarding adolescents who experience acute trauma. This study makes use of three theories to make a meaningful contribution namely those of Rudolf Otto (1869 – 1937), René Girard (1923 - ) and Donald Capps (1990, 1993, 1994,1996).

This study finds Otto`s theory about the numinous useful to assist traumatized adolescents on the road to healing. A numinous experience causes two results namely an overwhelming feeling of awe and a feeling of fear that comes from respect and distance. Traumatized adolescents should be guided into a meeting with God in a confusing post-modern world. Through the appropriation of the numinous adolescents can reach infinitely more than only being a “seeker”.

Girard`s (1978) theory on mimetic violence and the scapegoat mechanism has been used in this study since it throws some light on the manner in which traumatized adolescents process trauma. The scapegoat mechanism theory helps one to understand how violence can be processed by scapegoating someone or something else. Girard`s theory also enlightens on the theme of forgiveness. Forgiveness is the key to overcome the horrors of the past. Adolescents particularly need role models. These role models can be found amongst other things, on television. Role models teach adolescents about revenge and reprisal. This study demonstrates that by applying Girard`s theory to the cross of Jesus, the traumatized and crucified Jesus becomes the role model for the “seekers” rather than identification with the peer group. Girard creates a greater understanding to manage trauma by exposing the scapegoat mechanism.

Capps’ theory about hope and reframing on the other hand is useful in the sense that it gives hope for the future to adolescents. Hope therapy entails reframing since the situation needs a new perspective. The work of Capps, Reframing: New method in pastoral care (1990) was used as a framework.

Narrative therapy is used because it assists the traumatized in their search for meaning. Ganzevoort’s (2000) theory regarding personal narrative identity proved to be useful in pastoral care to traumatized adolescents. The same applies to Erikson’s (1963) development theory, which includes the concept that the virtue of hope develops during childhood. It can also be associated with Moltmann’s (1974) view of hope as an alternative future for suffering persons.

© 2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Endres, A 2008, Getraumatiseerde adolessente se soeke na hoop : ‘n pastorale model, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10172009-111913/ >


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