Document Type Doctoral Thesis Author Moeng, Jemina Kokotsi email@example.com URN etd-10142011-181457 Document Title Land reform policies to promote women’s sustainable development in South Africa Degree PhD Department School of Public Management and Administration Supervisor
Advisor Name Title Prof G van Dijk Supervisor Keywords
- women beneficiaries
- land reform policies
- the Provision of Certain Land Rights for Settle
- the Constitution
Date 2011-09-06 Availability unrestricted AbstractThis study focuses on the role that land reform policies have played and are continuing to play in promoting women’s sustainable development in South Africa. The Land Reform Policy and its related Programmes which aim to provide equitable access to land have gathered strength after 1994 and intend to promote participation and involvement of women, youth and people with disabilities. To this effect the study has investigated the effectiveness of the Land Reform Policy and the Programmes with specific reference to women beneficiaries.
The topic of the thesis refers to the Land Reform Policies as opposed to only one Land Reform Policy (The White Paper on South African Land Policy of 1997) which was introduced with the aim of integrating the then three existing policies which were later renamed programmes; Redistribution, Tenure Reform and Restitution.
The Land Redistribution Programme is based on the Provision of Certain Land Rights for Settlement Act, 1993 (Act 126 of 1993) and Section 25 (b) (5) of the Constitution, 1996. The programme provides for the description of land for settlement purposes and financial assistance to people acquiring land for agricultural purposes. The Land Tenure Reform Programme is based on the Upgrading of Land Tenure Rights Act, 1993 (Act 112 of 1993) and Section 25 (b) (6) of the Constitution, 1996. This programme is aimed at availing and providing security of tenure in different ways to its beneficiaries. The Land Restitution Programme has its basis on the Restitution of Land Rights Act, 1994 (Act 22 of 1994) and Section 25 (b) (7) of the Constitution, 1996. The Restitution of Land Rights Act, 1994 (Act 22 of 1994) provides for the restitution of rights in land to those dispossessed of land in terms of racially based policies of the past.
This thesis will therefore make reference to the main Land Reform Policy (WPSALP, 1997) and the Redistribution Programme and its sub-programmes.
The role of government has been quite critical in the establishment and implementation of the Land Reform Policies. This is fundamental especially because land reform is a national mandate. There is proven necessity that each government sphere must play its role and support each other towards achieving this call. There is potential to achieve beyond what has been achieved to date if all spheres of government and the relevant stakeholders put enough effort into this and land reform is placed centrally in all government spheres. Formal agreements are necessary between the three spheres of government on ensuring that land reform is implemented successfully and benefits its targets beneficiaries.
The study revealed that previous policies and legislations purposefully neglected and isolated women as beneficiaries of any developmental initiatives. The study proved that women are still regarded as the main provider of support to their families and yet have little say in land matters. The way in which the inferiority of women was inculcated was evident in the manner in which women were complacent with their lifestyles and ability to still take care of their families irrespective of the lack of resources.
The study mainly discusses the White Paper on South African Land Policy of 1997 in isolation of the other policies even though there is strong mentioning of the Constitution, 1996, the land related legislation which the programmes are based on and the RDP document as some of the policies supporting land reform. The other beneficiary categories as mentioned are equally important but the focus herein is on women.
The study applied the qualitative research method towards addressing the study focus challenges. A qualitative study is defined as an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of analysis that explore a social or human problem. The ability of women to own and utilise land is the focus of the study particularly in terms of promoting sustainable development for women. The desired result out of this study is an enquiry on how has the land reform empowered women towards their sustainable development, as well as what has been the process of ensuring that women have equal access to land. The qualitative research types that have been applied are a combination of case studies, literature review and unstructured interviews.
An analysis of the relationship between Public Administration and land reform is undertaken by the study. Within the analysis of the relationship between Public Administration and land reform, focus is on the origin of Public Administration and sustainable development’s perspective to Public Administration. The need to maintain a balance between economic development and environmental protection to ensure generational equity is highlighted as critical for sustained livelihoods. The use of natural resources such as land in an environmentally friendly manner will ensure that future generations can utilise land for their livelihoods as well. The enquiry has revealed that there is a lot of literature on the subject of land reform. Further on, through the unstructured interviews and cases used within the study, women have made a success of the land they received even though support to utilise land was not timeously provided by the relevant Department of Agriculture. The level of education, presence of women on farms, the ability to make decisions and knowledge of business concepts contributed to the women’s success.
The study revealed that previous policies and legislations purposefully neglected and isolated women as beneficiaries of any developmental initiatives. The study has proven that women were and still are regarded as the main support for their families and yet do not have any say in what happens on land matters. The way in which the inferiority of women was inculcated was evident in the manner in which women were complacent and satisfied with their lifestyles and ability to still take care of their families irrespective of the lack of resources.
The study further emphasises the important role of government in the establishment and implementation of the Land Reform Policies. There is proven necessity that each government sphere must play its role and support each other towards achieving this call. There is potential to achieve beyond what has been achieved to date if all spheres of government put enough effort into this and land reform is placed centrally in all government spheres. Cooperation between the three spheres of government and the beneficiaries of land is necessary towards ensuring that land reform is implemented successfully.
The thesis proposes that women should not be regarded as recipients of land only but also as contributors towards the government’s land reform. The lack of support that has been observed in the early years of land transfers to women has only delayed success of women but it did not hamper their continuous production on land. Implementation of these Land Reform Policies has supported women towards their sustainable development and improved livelihoods.
The study has also revealed that some of the international countries still face challenges towards the inclusiveness of women in land related initiatives and can exchange success cases and learning with the South African models. The systems model that has been proposed by the study is based on the contribution of all the affected stakeholders and not government alone. The Land Reform Programmes have made a difference in people’s lives but there is work that is still necessary in terms of ensuring cooperation, coordination and strategies that indicate the extent to which government can support women.
© 2011 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.
Please cite as follows:
Moeng, JK 201, Land reform policies to promote women’s sustainable development in South Africa, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10142011-181457 / >
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