Title page for ETD etd-09302008-111355


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Muller, Anna-Maria
Email lamuller@absamail.co.za
URN etd-09302008-111355
Document Title Intonasie in fluitspel (Afrikaans)
Degree MMus
Department Music
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof J de C Hinch Supervisor
Keywords
  • tuning system
  • flute
  • intonation
  • embouchure
  • instemming
  • toonhoogteneigings
  • fluitskaal
  • gehoor
  • frekwensie
  • toonhoogte
  • stemmingstelsel
  • fluit
  • intonasie
  • pitch
  • frequency
  • hearing
  • flute scale
  • pitch tendency tuning
Date 2008-04-09
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
In hierdie studie word die intonasie van fluitspel ondersoek met die doel om vas te stel watter faktore benvloed intonasie en watter metodes aangewend kan word om dit te verbeter.

Intonasie is n besonder sensitiewe onderwerp vir enige musikant. Indien n musikant negatief gekritiseer word oor intonasie, word dit dikwels as n persoonlike aanslag ervaar.

Deur die oorsprong van Westerse stemmingstelsels te ondersoek, word dit moontlik om die onderwerp van intonasie meer sensitief te benader. Hierdie bewusmaking kan moontlik nuwe insigte tot stand bring ten opsigte van die nodige aanpassings wat gemaak moet word om intonasie te verbeter tydens solo- en ensemble-spel.

Verskeie faktore kan daartoe bydra dat intonasie as minder goed ervaar word. Sommige van hierdie faktore word nie noodwendig deur die uitvoerder beheer nie, maar hou verband met die fisiologie van gehoor hoe klank waargeneem word. Die enigste manier waarop intonasie gemonitor kan word tydens n uitvoering, is met die menslike oor. Intonasie is direk gekoppel aan die frekwensie van n spesifieke toonhoogte. In die natuur bestaan daar faktore wat die waarneming van n frekwensie as n spesifieke toonhoogte kan benvloed, byvoorbeeld die tydsduur, intensiteit en toonkleur. Hierdie faktore word ook in hierdie studie ondersoek.

Alvorens metodes ter verbetering van intonasie ondersoek kan word, moet die bou van die moderne fluit ondersoek word. Geen fluitskaal het perfekte ingeboude intonasie nie en deur bewus te wees van waar die tekortkominge voorkom, kan die uitvoerder die onderwerp van intonasie met groter omsigtigheid benader.

Sodra die uitvoerder en onderwyser bewus is van watter faktore intonasie benvloed en wat nie deur die uitvoerder beheer word nie, kan metodes oorweeg word om faktore wat wel binne die uitvoerder se beheer is, toe te pas om die fluitspeler se intonasie te verbeter. Verskeie aspekte word bespreek, waaronder die plasing van die kurkstopper, die posisie van die kopstuk ten opsigte van die fluit, die manier waarop die fluit vasgehou word, opwarmingsmetodes en oefeninge, die metode van instemming en toonproduksie.

Die toonhoogteneigings van note op die fluit word vergelyk soos dit voorkom in vyf verskillende bronne, waarna alternatiewe vingersettings voorgestel word vir pianissimo- en fortissimo-spel. Hierdie vingersettings kan handig te pas kom om die embouchure te assisteer en intonasie beter te beheer.

Laastens word die verband tussen die afwykings in die fluit se intonasie, en klimaat en weerstoestande ondersoek, sodat die speler die uitwerking wat veral temperatuur op intonasie het, ook in ag kan neem.

Alhoewel hierdie navorsing grootliks klem l op fluitspelers, is die studie nie net beperk tot die fluit nie en ander instrumentaliste sal ook hierby kan baatvind.

ENGLISH

This study investigates the factors that influence intonation when playing the flute. Methods by which intonation may be improved are also examined.

All musicians regard intonation as an extremely sensitive subject. Musicians often perceive negative criticism of intonation as a personal affront.

By investigating the origin of the Western tuning systems, it becomes possible to approach the subject of intonation with more sensitivity. This awareness may establish new insights with regard to the necessary adjustments that must be made during both solo and ensemble playing.

Different factors may contribute to intonation being perceived as unsatisfactory. Some of these factors are not necessarily controlled by the performer, but relate to the physiology of hearing how sound is perceived. The only way in which intonation can be monitored during a performance, is with the human ear. Intonation is directly linked to the frequency of a specific pitch. Factors exist in nature which may influence the perception of a frequency as a specific pitch, for example duration, intensity and tone colour. These factors are also examined in this study. Before investigating methods to improve intonation, the way that the modern flute is built has to be examined. No flute scale has perfect, built-in intonation. By being aware of the shortcomings that may occur, the performer can approach the subject with greater circumspection.

When the performer and the educator are aware of the factors which may influence intonation and which are not controlled by the performer, methods can be considered to apply factors that can be controlled by the performer to improve intonation. Different aspects are discussed, such as the placement of the cork stopper, the position of the head joint with regard to the flute, the way the flute is held, warm-up methods and exercises, how to tune and tone production.

The pitch tendency of notes on the flute are compared as they occur in five different sources, after which alternative fingerings are suggested for pianissimo and fortissimo playing. These fingerings are useful in assisting the embouchure to maintain better control of intonation.

Finally, the relation between the deviation in the flutes intonation, and climate and weather conditions are investigated to assist the performer to take into consideration the effect that temperature has on intonation.

Although this research focuses on flute players, this study is not restricted to the flute, and other instrumentalists can also benefit from it.

University of Pretoria 2007

E1109/ag

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