Title page for ETD etd-09212010-145157


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Van der Klashorst, Engela
Email sauwp@webmail.co.za
URN etd-09212010-145157
Document Title Recreation provision in lower socio-economic communities in South Africa
Degree Master of Arts
Department Biokinetics, Sport and Leisure Sciences
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Dr J G U van Wyk Co-Supervisor
Prof A E Goslin Supervisor
Keywords
  • lae sosio-ekonomies gemeenskappe
  • sosiale verandering
  • recreation provision
  • second-order cybernetics
  • lower socio-economic communities
  • social change
  • rekreasievoorsiening
  • twee-orde kubernetika
Date 2010-09-03
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

The provision of leisure and recreation has the potential to vitalise and change lower socio-economic communities. The benefits of leisure and recreation participation are, however, absent in the lower socio-economic communities of Danville and Elandspoort, as recreation and leisure activities are not seen as necessary needs that should be provided for the residents. Lower socio-economic status communities tend to suffer as a consequence of the often subliminal assumptions and reactions of well-meaning people. A major barrier to the implementation of recreation programmes in lower socio-economic communities remains the fact that these programmes often fall into the ambit of non-profit organisations, whose first priority does not usually include recreation provision.

Second-order cybernetics theory is introduced in this study as a possible alternative approach to recreation provision in lower socio-economic communities. Engaging in a second-order cybernetics approach, the recreation provider can look beyond the feedback patterns utilised by a community to maintain its status quo, and work with and within a community to establish a sustainable recreation programme. Through the use of a second-order cybernetics approach, the residents of a lower socio-economic status community will no longer be regarded as the ‘observed’ participants of a programme that has been designed by an ‘observer’ and ‘expert’ recreation provider, but will, rather, participate in and share the responsibility of designing their own recreation programme for the community.

The following three hypotheses were formulated:

  • Recreation provision in lower socio-economic communities will benefit from a second-order cybernetics approach.
  • Sustainable recreation provision in a lower socio-economic status community will enhance the quality of life of the residents engaging in the activities available within the community.
  • Second-order recreation provision in a lower socio-economic community will create an environment that is likely to be beneficial for social change

In order for the hypotheses to be tested, the aims of the study were:

  • To examine the influence of recreation and leisure opportunities as a means of improving and maintaining social cohesion and quality of life in lower socio-economic status communities.
  • To identify the barriers to providing and maintaining a comprehensive, sustainable recreation programme in a lower socio-economic community.
  • To understand the way in which the residents of Danville and Elandspoort view recreation and recreation provision within the communities.
  • To identify the similarities and differences between the current approach to recreational provision in the lower socio-economic communities of Danville and Elandspoort and a second-order cybernetics approach.

Grounded in a qualitative framework, the research methods for the study included a literature review, the use of focus groups and vignette techniques, and observation. The sampling for the focus groups was done by means of convenience sampling. In total, six focus groups, which were segmented by place of attendance, participated. A total of 60 participants were used in the study, excluding the residents to whom the researcher spoke throughout the course of the study, and as part of the observation.

It was found that a positive relationship exists between lower socio-economic status and inappropriate recreation programming. Lower socio-economic status communities are excluded from participation by means of several barriers, including factors such as cost of participation, registration fees and transport. An important barrier to recreation participation in the lower socio-economic status communities of Danville and Elandspoort that was identified in the study was the absence of recreation facilities in the communities. Residents confirmed that television and the consumption of alcohol were the main recreation activities in the communities. The responses provided in focus group discussions confirmed the fact that residents felt excluded from society, and that they also assumed that leisure and recreation activities were privileges that were reserved only for the middle and higher socio-economic status communities. Residents within the communities did not only feel excluded from society, but also felt powerless to do something about the situation. In response to the question concerning their perception of quality of life within the communities, participants demonstrated that they felt that recreation programming would be a positive contribution to the communities’ perception of a better quality of life. A second-order approach to recreation provision in the communities of Danville and Elandspoort will assist in facilitating a process of social change within the communities by including residents in the planning and provision of a community recreation programme.

In order to utilize the full potential of leisure and recreation provision in the lower socio-economic communities of Danville and Elandspoort, the following aspects are suggested for the undertaking of any further research:

  • The potential of leisure and recreation provision to facilitate social change in a lower socio-economic community.
  • Real barriers versus perceived barriers to recreation provision and recreation participation in a lower socio-economic community.
  • Second-order cybernetics recreation provision as a community development approach: implementation and evaluation of change and sustainability within the community.

AFRIKAANS : Die voorsiening van rekreasie in ‘n lae sosio-ekonomiese status gemeenskap het die inherente vermoë om ‘n positiewe verandering in die gemeenskap te bring. Die voordeel van rekreasie kan egter nie in die lae sosio-ekonomiese status gemeenskappe van Danville en Elandspoort verwesenlik en bydrae tot ‘n hoër persepsie van lewenskwaliteit nie, aangesien rekreasievoorsiening dikwels nie gesien word as ‘n nodige behoefte in die versorging van lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskappe nie. Die voorsiening van behoeftes in lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskappe val dikwels onder die vaandel van geloofsgroepe (kerke), nie-winsgewende organisasies en vrywilligers wat, alhoewel met goeie bedoelings, dikwels onbewustelik as ‘kenners’ namens die gemeenskap besluite neem.

‘n Tweede-orde kubernetiese benadering tot rekreasievoorsiening word in die studie voorgestel as ‘n moontlike alternatief tot die huidige benadering in lae sosio-ekonomiese status gemeenskappe. Die gebruik van ‘n tweede-orde kubernetiese benadering gee die rekreasievoorsiener die geleentheid om verby die gemeenskap se terugvoer patrone te kyk, en saam met die gemeenskap ‘n volhoubare rekreasieprogram te ontwikkel. ‘n Tweede-orde kubernetiese benadering tot rekreasie voorsiening verander die posisie van die gemeenskapslede van ‘geobserveerde’ deelnemers aan ‘n rekreasie program ontwerp deur ‘n ‘observerende’ rekreasiekundige, na ‘n deelnemende rol in die ontwerp van die rekreasie program vir die gemeenskap.

Die volgende drie hipoteses is geformuleer in antwoord op die navorsings probleem:

  • Rekreasie voorsiening in lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskappe sal positief beïnvloed word deur ‘n tweede-orde kubernetiese benadering.
  • ‘n Volhoubare rekreasie program en geleenthede vir rekreasie deelname in die lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskappe van Danville en Elandspoort sal die gemeenskap se persepsie van lewenskwaliteit verhoog.
  • ‘n Rekreasie program met ‘n tweede-orde kubernetiese benadering in ‘n lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskap sal bydrae tot ‘n omgewing ontvanklik vir sosiale verandering.

Die doelwitte gestel vanuit die hipoteses is as volg:

  • Om die invloed van rekreasie en vryetyds-besteding geleenthede op die sosiale samehorigheid en handhawing van ‘n positiewe persepsie van lewenskwaliteit in die lae sosio-ekonomies gemeenskappe van Danville en Elandspoort te ondersoek;
  • Om die struikelblokke tot die aanbied van ‘n volhoubare rekreasieprogram in ‘n lae sosio-ekonomies gemeenskap te identifiseer;
  • Om te verstaan hoe die inwoners van die lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskappe van Danville en Elandspoort rekreasie voorsiening in die gemeenskap sien en ervaar;
  • Om ooreenkomste asook verskille tussen die huidige benadering tot rekreasie voorsiening in die gemeenskap, en ‘n moontlike tweede-orde kubernetiese benadering te identifiseer.

Navorsing in die studie is kwalitatief en navorsingsmetodes sluit in ‘n literatuurstudie, fokus groepe, vignette tegniek, informele onderhoud en observasie. Selektering vir die fokus groepe is gedoen deur gerieflikheids-selektering, met indeling volgens die plek van bywoning: twee sopkombuise in Elandspoort, ‘n sopkombuis in Danville en ‘n ma-en-baba sentrum in Danville. ‘n Totaal van sestig deelnemers is gebruik in die studie, uitgesluit die gemeenskapslede met wie die navorser gepraat het deur die verloop van die studie.

‘n Positiewe verhouding is gevind tussen lae sosio-ekonomies status en swak rekreasie voorsiening. Lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskappe word uitgesluit deur die bestaan van verskeie struikelblokke tot deelname aan rekreasie, insluitend koste van deelname, registrasiefooie en vervoerprobleme. ‘n Belangrike struikelblok tot deelname aan rekreasie geidentifiseer in die studie is die afwesigheid van rekreasie fasiliteite in die gemeenskap.

Inwoners het bevestig dat televisie en verbruik van alkohol die belangrikste vorm van rekreasie in die gemeenskap is. Reaksies van deelnemers aan die fokusgroepe het bevestig dat inwoners uitgesluit voel van die samelewing, en dat die aanname binne die gemeenskap bestaan dat rekreasie en vryetyd-aktiwiteite die voorreg van middel en hoër sosio-ekonomiese status gemeenskappe is. In reaksie op inwoners se lewenskwaliteit is daar deur die deelnemers aangedui dat rekreasie aktiwiteite in die gemeenskap sal bydrae tot ‘n positiewe persepsie van lewenskwaliteit.

Om die volle potensiaal van rekreasie voorsiening in die gemeenskap van Danville en Elandspoort tot reg te laat kom, word die volgende aanbevelings gemaak ten opsigte van verdere navorsing:

  • Die potensiaal van rekreasie en vryetydsbestuur in die fasiliteitering van sosiale verandering in ‘n lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskap.
  • Werklike struikelblokke teenoor die ‘persepsie’ van struikelblokke in ‘n lae sosio-ekonomiese gemeenskap.
  • Implementering van ‘n tweede-orde kubernetiese rekreasie program in ‘n lae sosio-ekonomiese status gemeenskap.

© 2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Van der Klashorst, E 2010, Recreation provision in lower socio-economic communities in South Africa, MA dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-09212010-145157/ >

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