Document Type Doctoral Thesis Author Mokhaba, Mmori Benjamin email@example.com URN etd-09212005-143124 Document Title Outcomes-based education in South Africa since 1994 : policy objectives and implementation complexities Degree PhD (Public Affairs) Department School of Public Management and Administration Supervisor
Advisor Name Title Prof N L Roux Committee Chair Prof C Thornhill Committee Co-Chair Prof P A Brynard Committee Co-Chair Keywords
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Date 2005-06-13 Availability unrestricted AbstractThe primary objective of the research for this thesis is to propose an implementation model for outcomes-based education which could be implemented in South Africa. However, the proposed public policy model and its implementation activities could be appropriate for all government departments as well as public institutions. Subservient to the primary objective is the secondary objective, which can be divided into two. The first aim of the research project is to highlight and emphasise the pivotal roles of the theory and practices of public policy making, analysis and implementation. The secondary objective was to pinpoint the necessity of describing a public policy being studied in simple, clear and unambiguous language, to promote understanding. This is crucial because before a public policy could be implemented it should be comprehended.
To attain the objectives of the study it is necessary to indicate the rationale for the introduction of outcomes-based education to satisfy the public policy imperatives and directives enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996). Amongst others, the Constitution emphasises equality of all citizens before the law, respect for human dignity and, foremost in this thesis, the right to basic education, including adult basic education and further education. Outcomes-based education was also introduced to teach the youth and the population at large the essential democratic principles and values.
To capture the essence of the thesis, a problem statement is formulated to express the objectives of the study. The problem statement hypothesises that the proposed implementation model for outcomes-based education policy in South Africa is a necessary and sufficient condition for successful public policy implementation. The proposed implementation model should be widely implementable in the public sector as well as by the Department of Education.
In keeping with one of the objectives of the study, public policy and policy analysis are described in detail. Matters that receive attention are: policy in general and public policy in particular, policy formulation, role players and factors in policy formulation, policy analysis, crucial variables for studying policy implementation, policy evaluation, and policy analysis institutions. The purpose of the study is twofold, namely, to explain the central role played by the theory and practice of public policy, and a scientific approach for dealing with public policy. Moreover, it is crucial to know and understand what every public policy is about B its definition, origins, characteristics, and advantages. In relation to outcomes-based education policy for South Africa all these matters have to be taken into account.
The effect of policy implementation must be viewed in relation to its impact on its implementers as well as its beneficiaries. Hence, the roles of both educators and learners have to be described in detail. Activities that enable educators and learners to express themselves in relation to outcomes-based education policy are: reflective teaching practice; multicultural classrooms; possible outcomes of learning; teaching strategies and teaching methods; and lesson planning and preparation. Moreover, the roles of educators and learners as dictated to or in keeping with outcomes-based education policy has to be explained. The rationale for this explanation is to indicate the extent to which the implementation of outcomes-based education policy brought about change in teaching and learning. Furthermore, from the description of roles of educators and learners one can deduce the impact of the public policy implemented. In addition, it is possible to see whether the initial intended objectives of the policy have been realised or not. Therefore, the roles of educators and learners serve as barometers to indicate the extent to which the objectives of the outcomes-based education policy have been achieved or not.
To ensure that a public policy is successfully implemented, there is a need for a guide to implementation in the form of a public policy implementation model. Hence, a public policy implementation model for South African outcomes-based education is proposed. Initially policy analysis techniques are explained. Four policy analysis bases are explained, namely, cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, simulations and models, and experimental analysis. Implications of policy analysis techniques are indicated with regard to the model, followed by an explanation of the national curriculum statement. Aspects that are addressed include outcomes-based education, learning areas statement, learning programmes, time allocations, assessment, educator and learner. The impact of the national curriculum statement on the model is explained. A further component of the model is the management of the implementation process. Regarding the latter, personnel, financing, procedural arrangements, control and accountability, and organising are described as building blocks of the model. Monitoring and evaluation are explained in relation to policy implementation. The study contributes in particular to the successful implementation of outcomes-based education through the application of an implementation model. This could also apply to public policy management in general.
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