Title page for ETD etd-09172007-084901


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Bekker, Theo Frederik
URN etd-09172007-084901
Document Title Efficacy of water soluble silicon for control of phytophthora cinnamomi root rot of avocado
Degree MSc (Agric) Horticulture
Department Plant Production and Soil Science
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof N Labuschagne Committee Chair
Dr J H van der Waals Committee Co-Chair
Prof T Aveling Committee Co-Chair
Keywords
  • avokado
  • phytophthora cinnamomi wortel vrot
  • water oplosbare silikon
  • phytophthora cinnamomi root rot
  • avocado
  • water soluble silicon
Date 2007-09-06
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

In the current study potassium silicate (20.7% SiO2) induced a 100% inhibition of P. cinnamomi mycelial growth at all concentrations tested. Total inhibition for all fungi tested (Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Mucor pusillus, Natrassia sp., Pestalotiopsis maculans, Phomopsis perniciosa, Phytophthora capsicii, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pythium F-group, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium herbarum and Verticillium tricorpus) was attained at a concentration of 40ml.l-1 and higher. Although the high pH of potassium silicate solutions does contribute to the inhibition of fungal growth, the inhibitory effect of potassium silicate on fungal growth in vitro is mostly fungicidal rather than attributed to a pH effect. Phytophthora root rot of avocado nursery trees can be inhibited successfully by potassium silicate application. The effectiveness of potassium silicate application depends however on the repetition of applications. These findings are of paramount importance as this implies that potassium silicate may be a alternative control measure to inhibit the effects of P. cinnamomi on avocado nursery trees. Silicon either stimulates plant growth or imparts some form of protection to avocado roots if applied prior to P. cinnamomi inoculation.

Potassium silicate applied as a soil drench resulted in higher root densities compared to that of potassium phosphonate (Avoguard®) injections and untreated control trees. Reapplication again resulted in the best disease suppression and stimulation of new root growth. These results correlated well with tree canopy ratings, as trees that received silicon frequently, showed better canopy conditions compared to the untreated control treatments. Potassium silicate application leads to effective inhibition of Phytophthora cinnamomi infection in avocado orchards.

Potassium silicate application resulted in an increase of crude phenols and phenolic polymers in avocado roots cells to similar levels to that obtained in roots from potassium phosphonate (Avoguard®) treated trees. Potassium silicate application leads to lower cell wall bound phenolics.

The results of the current study support the hypothesis that silicon application, through an elevation of the total phenolic levels, causes an increase of resistance against P. cinnamomi root rot in avocados.

AFRIKAANS : Kaliumsilikaat (20.7% SiO2) induseer ‘n 100% inhibisie van P. cinnamomi groei by alle getoetste konsentrasies. Totale inhibisie van alle swamme getoets (Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Mucor pusillus, Natrassia sp., Pestalotiopsis maculans, Phomopsis perniciosa, Phytophthora capsicii, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pythium F-groep, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium herbarum en Verticillium tricorpus) was verkry by ‘n konsentrasie van 40ml.l-1 en hoër. Alhoewel die hoë pH van kaliumsilikaat wel ‘n inhiberende uitwerking het op swamgroei, is die suksesvolle inhibisie van swamgroei grootliks toe te skryf aan die swamwerende effek van kaliumsilikaat op swamgroei in vitro eerder as ‘n pH effek.

Phytophthora wortelvrot van avokado kwekelinge kan suksesvol onderdruk word met kaliumsilikaat toediening. Die effektiwiteit van die toediening hang wel af van die hertoediening daarvan. Hierdie bevindinge is van kardinale belang aangesien dit impliseer dat kalium silikaat ‘n alternatiewe beheer middel is om Phytophthora wortelvrot te inhibeer in avokado kwekelinge. Of silikon stimuleer plant groei, of dit induseer ‘n vorm van beskerming in avokado wortels voor infeksie plaasvind.

Kaliumsilikaat toediening as ‘n grond-benatter lei tot hoër worteldigthede in vergelyking met kaliumfosfaat (Avoguard®) staminspuitings en onbehandelde kontrole bome. Hertoediening lewer die beste resultate, maar drie toedienings per seisoen is voldoende. Worteldigdheid verhoging na silikaat toedienings korreleer goed met blaredak gesondheid, aangesien bome wat gereeld behandel is met silikon beter blaredekking getoon het in vergelyking met die kontrole bome. Kaliumsilikaat toediening lei to effektiewe inhibisie van Phytophthora cinnamomi infeksie in avokado boorde.

Kaliumsilikaat toediening lei tot ‘n toename in totale fenole en fenoliese polimere in avokado wortel selle tot soortgelyke vlakke soos gevind in avokado weefsel vanaf kaliumfosfaat behandelde bome. terselfdertyd lei silikaat toediening tot laer selwand gebinde fenole.

Hierdie resultate ondersteun die hipotese dat kaliumsilikaat toediening, deur die verhoging van oplosbare fenole in avokado wortelselle, die plant se weerstand verhoog, en die effek wat Phytophthora wortelvrot het op avokado plante inhibeer.

Copyright © 2007, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria

Please cite as follows:

Bekker, TF, 2007, Efficacy of water soluble silicon for control of phytophthora cinnamomi root rot of avocado , MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-09172007-084901/>

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