Title page for ETD etd-09142004-104041


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Moletsane, Mokgadi Kekae
Email mokgadi.moletsane@up.ac.za
URN etd-09142004-104041
Document Title The efficacy of the Rorschach among black learners in South Africa
Degree PhD (Educational Psychology)
Department Educational Psychology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof I Eloff
Keywords
  • psychological test administration
  • multi-lingualism
  • psychological tests
  • standardised test
  • Rorschach Comprehensive System
  • Rorschach inkblot method
  • ethnicity
  • culture
  • disadvantaged
  • cross-cultural psychology
Date 2004-08-07
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
In this study the original Rorschach test was administered to ten black South African adolescents, all fourteen years of age. Originally, the Rorschach’s test norms have been determined for an American sample. Using a qualitative research design in this study, the standard Rorschach test was administered in two phases, namely the pre-test and the post-test. Ten case studies were used as a format for research. During the pre-test the standard RCS procedures were strictly adhered to. The participants were never exposed to psychological tests before and reacted differently when presented with the Rorschach Inkblot cards for the first time. For instance, some of them were uncertain, nervous and reacted with shock. According to Exner & Weiner (1995:33) when less than 14 answers are given in response to the Rorschach test, the results cannot be interpreted. The participants were therefore required to give 14 or more answers. During the pre-test phase five out of 10 gave 14 and more responses whereas five gave less than 14 responses. The total responses of the 10 participants were 127 with an average of 12,7.

The factors that inhibited the participants from giving 14 or more responses were identified and analysed. Adjusted or modified RCS procedures were then designed with the explicit aim of accommodating the participants’ culture, beliefs and background. The participants were re-tested with the adjusted RCS (ARCS) during the post-test phase. In this phase, eight participants gave 14 or more responses and only two participants gave less than 14 responses. The number of responses increased when the ARCS was administered. The total responses of the 10 participants were 161 with an average of 16,1. The results indicate an increase of 34 responses with an average increase of 3,4 responses for each participant.

The research findings indicate that the ARCS was a more appropriate and effective administering test procedure when testing black South African adolescents as compared to the standard RCS. It is recommended that when administering the Rorschach Comprehensive System among non-western participants, that the factors that could prevent them from giving sufficient responses should be identified and analysed in order to modify the test procedures. The examiners could in this way minimise biases when administering psychological tests.

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