Title page for ETD etd-08252010-200539

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Marcos, Bento Gilberto Mazula
Email bento.marcos@afs.org
URN etd-08252010-200539
Document Title Professionals and zenophobia : a sociological analysis of skilled African immigrants in Gauteng
Degree MSocSci
Department Sociology
Advisor Name Title
Prof J Grobbelaar Co-Supervisor
Dr C Puttergill Supervisor
  • liberal democratic state
  • Gauteng
  • apartheid state
  • apartheid-staat
  • South Africa
  • Suid-Afrika
  • liberale demokratiese staat
  • xenophobia
  • xenofobie
Date 2010-04-14
Availability unrestricted

The transition, in 1994, in South Africa from an authoritarian ethno-nationalist Apartheid state where racial categories determined inclusion and exclusion to a liberal democratic state, raised the promise of greater inclusion within society. The post-Apartheid state formally abandoned racism and discrimination, at least in its legal sense. Paradoxically, in a context which enabled greater engagement with Africa, the new ‘Rainbow Nation’ with an emphasis on nation-building and emerging nationalism, led to manifestations of discrimination and exclusion of a different kind.

An escalation in incidents of xenophobia within post-Apartheid South Africa has been fully documented. However, it could be argued, not all immigrants are subject to incidents of xenophobia. In the new South Africa, targeting the black African immigrant, in particular, has resulted in a new cycle of exclusion. As Nyamnjoh puts it these black African immigrants are associated with “the Heart of Darkness north of the Limpopo”. In contrast, foreign whites seem to be more acceptable in the new South Africa. Experiences of xenophobia and the concomitant exclusion and/or discrimination have been raced. African immigrants, however, are not a monolithic grouping. The dissertation argues that whilst all black African immigrants potentially experience xenophobia, socio-economic status may mitigate the extent and immediacy of this, as well as the ability to escape or avoid such experiences to some extent.

AFRIKAANS : Die oorgang vanaf 'n outoritêre etno-nasionalistiese Apartheid-staat, waar rasse-kategorieë insluiting en uitsluiting bepaal het, na ’n liberale demokratiese staat in 1994, het die belofte van groter insluiting in die samelewing gehuldig. Die “post-Apartheid” staat het rassisme en diskriminasie ten minste op wetlike-vlak, formeel afgeskaf. In 'n konteks wat groter verbintenis met Afrika moontlik gemaak het, het die nuwe "Reëboog nasie" met die klem op nasiebou, nasionalisme ontketen. Paradoksaal het dit tot manifestasies van diskriminasie en uitsluiting van 'n ander aard gelei.

'n Toename in die voorvalle van xenofobie in “post-Apartheid” Suid-Afrika is ten volle gedokumenteer. Tog kan dit aangevoer word dat, nie alle immigrante onderworpe is aan voorvalle van xenofobie nie. In die nuwe Suid-Afrika is dit gerig op die swart Afrika-immigrant, in die besonder. Dit het tot 'n nuwe siklus van uitsluiting gelei. Soos Nyamnjoh dit stel word hierdie immigrante van Afrika met die "Heart of Darkness north of the Limpopo" geassosieer. In teenstelling blyk dit dat blankes van die buiteland meer aanvaarbaar in die nuwe Suid-Afrika beskou word. Ervarings van xenofobie en die gepaardgaande uitsluiting en/of diskriminasie is ras-gebonde. Immigrante van Afrika is egter nie 'n eenvormige groepering nie. Die verhandeling voer aan dat alhoewel alle swart immigrante van Afrika potensieel xenofobie ervaar, sosio-ekonomiese status, die omvang en die onmiddelikheid hiervan versag, sowel as die vermoë om van sulke ervaringe, tot 'n mate, te kan ontsnap of dit te kan vermy.

Copyright © 2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Marcos, BGM 2010, Professionals and zenophobia : a sociological analysis of skilled African immigrants in Gauteng, MSocSci dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-08252010-200539/ >

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