Title page for ETD etd-08242010-141440

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Pretorius, Jacques Nicolaas
Email jncpretorius@telkomsa.net
URN etd-08242010-141440
Document Title Mobile tolerant hybrid network routing protocol for wireless sensor networks
Degree MEng
Department Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
Advisor Name Title
Prof G P Hancke Supervisor
  • hierarchical routing
  • node mobility
  • flat routing
  • boodskap aflewerings verhouding
  • energie effektiwiteit
  • bewegende nodes
  • energie verbruik
  • hierargiese roetering
  • plat roetering
  • Koordlose sensor netwerke
  • message delivery ratio
  • wireless sensor networks
  • energy consumption
  • energy efficiency
Date 2010-04-14
Availability unrestricted

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) may consist of hundreds or even thousands of nodes and could be used for a multitude of applications such as warfare intelligence or to monitor the environment. A typical WSN node has a limited and usually irreplaceable power source and the efficient use of the available power is of utmost importance to ensure maximum lifetime of each WSN application. Each of the nodes needs to transmit and communicate sensed data to an aggregation point for use by higher layer systems. Data and message transmission among nodes collectively consume the largest amount of the energy available in a WSN. The network routing protocols ensure that every message reaches the destination and has a direct impact on the amount of transmissions to deliver a messages successfully. To this end the transmission protocol within the WSN should be scalable, adaptable and optimized to consume the least possible amount of energy to suite different network architectures and application domains.

This dissertation proposes a Mobile Tolerant Hybrid Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (MT-HEER), where hybrid refers to the inclusion of both flat and hierarchical routing architectures as proposed by Page in the Hybrid Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (HEER). HEER was previously developed at the University of Pretoria and forms the starting point of this research.

The inclusion of mobile nodes in the WSN deployment proves to be detrimental to protocol performance in terms of energy efficiency and message delivery. This negative impact is attributable to assuming that all nodes in the network are statically located. In an attempt to adapt to topological changes caused by mobile nodes, too much energy could be consumed by following traditional network failure algorithms. MT-HEER introduces a mechanism to pro-actively track and utilise mobile nodes as part of the routing strategy.

The protocol is designed with the following in mind: computational simplicity, reliability of message delivery, energy efficiency and most importantly mobility awareness. Messages are propagated through the network along a single path while performing data aggregation along the same route. MT-HEER relies on at least 40% of the nodes in the network being static to perform dynamic route maintenance in an effort to mitigate the risks of topological changes due to mobile nodes.

Simulation results have shown that MT-HEER performs as expected by preserving energy within acceptable limits, while considering the additional energy overhead introduced by dynamic route maintenance. Mobile node tolerance is evident in the protocol's ability to provide a constant successful message delivery ratio at the sink node with the introduction and increase in the number of mobile nodes.

MT-HEER succeeds in providing tolerance to mobile nodes within a WSN while operating within acceptable energy conservation limits.

AFRIKAANS : Koordlose Sensor Netwerke mag bestaan uit honderde of selfs duisende nodes en kan gebruik word vir 'n legio van toepassings soos oorlogs intellegensie of om die omgewing te monitor. 'n Tipiese node in so 'n netwerk het 'n beperkte en soms onvervangbare energie bron. Die effektiewe gebruik van die beskikbare energie is dus van uiterste belang om te verseker dat die maksimum leeftyd vir 'n koordlose sensor network behaal kan word. Elkeen van die nodes in the network moet die waargeneemde data aanstuur oor die netwerk na 'n versamelings punt vir latere gebruik deur applikasie vlak stelsels. Informasie en boodskap transmissie tussen die nodes is wel een van die aktiwiteite wat die meeste energie verbruik in the netwerk. Die roeterings protokol verseker dat die boodskappe die eindbestemming behaal en het 'n direkte impak op die hoeveelheid transmissies wat kan plaas vind om dit te bewerkstellig. Die roeterings protokol moet dus skaleerbaar, aanpasbaar en verfyn word om die minste moontlike energie te verbruik in verskillende toepassings velde.

Hierdie verhandeling stel 'n Bewegings Tolerante Hybriede Netwerk Roeterings Protokol vir Koordlose Sensor Netwerke (“MT-HEER”) voor. In hierdie konteks verwys hybried na die samesmelting van beide plat en hierargiese roeterings beginsels soos voor gestel deur Page in Hybriede Netwerk Roeterings Protokol (“HEER”). HEER was ontwikkel by die Universiteit van Pretoria en vorm die begin punt van hierdie navorsing.

Die insluiting van bewegende nodes in 'n Koordlose Sensor Netwerk toon 'n negatiewe tendens in terme van energie effektiwiteit en suksesvolle boodskap aflewerings by die eindbestemming. Die grootste rede vir hierdie negatiewe tendens is die aanname deur gepubliseerde werke dat alle nodes in die netwerk staties is. Te veel energie sal vermors word indien tradisionele fout korregerende meganismes gevolg word om aan te pas by die bewegende nodes. MT-HEER stel 'n meganisme voor om die bewegende nodes te gebruik as deel van die roetering strategie en gevolglik ook hierdie nodes te volg soos hulle beweeg deur die netwerk.

Die protokol is ontwikkel met die volgende doelstellings: rekenkundig eenvoudigheid, betroubare boodskap aflewering, energie effektiwiteit en bewustheid van bewegende nodes. Boodskappe word langs 'n enkele pad gestuur deur die netwerk terwyl boodskap samevoeging bewerkstellig word om die eind bestemming te bereik. MT-HEER vereis wel dat ten minste 40% van die netwerk nodes staties bly om die dienamiese roeterings instandhouding te bewerkstellig.

Simulasie toetse en resultate het bewys dat MT-HEER optree soos verwag in gevalle waar daar bewegende nodes deel uit maak van die netwerk. Energie bewaring is binne verwagte parameters terwyl die addisionele energie verbruik binne rekening gebring word om te sorg vir bewegende nodes. Die protokol se toleransie teen bewegende nodes word ten toon gestel deur die vermoë van die protokol om konstant 'n hoë suksesvolle bookskap aflewerings verhouding te handhaaf.

MT-HEER behaal die uitgesette doel om 'n toleransie teen bewegende nodes beskikbaar te stel, terwyl die protokol steeds funksioneer binne verwagte energie besparings limiete.

Copyright © 2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Pretorius, JN 2010, Mobile tolerant hybrid network routing protocol for wireless sensor networks, MEng dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-08242010-141440/ >


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