Title page for ETD etd-08172011-160309


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Dlangamandla, Vathiswa Portia
Email vathiswad@socdev.gov.za
URN etd-08172011-160309
Document Title The experiences of social workers regarding the implementation of a developmental social welfare approach within the Department of Social Development Gauteng Province
Degree MSW
Department Social Work and Criminology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof C S L Delport Supervisor
Keywords
  • developmental social welfare
  • maatskaplike welsyn
  • maatskaplike ontwikkeling
  • social welfare
  • social development
Date 2011-04-04
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
In South Africa, commitment to switch to the developmental approach with the aim of alleviating poverty and integrating social and economic development is evident in the White Paper for Social Welfare (RSA, Ministry for Social Welfare and Population Development, 1997), the Reconstruction and Development Programme (1994), the Growth Employment and Redistribution strategy (1996), the Policy on Financial Awards to Service Providers (2005) and the Integrated Service Delivery Model (ISDM) (2005). These policy documents attempt to integrate social development goals and economic development within a developmental approach to social welfare.

The social development approach to social welfare in the South African context is firmly rooted in a rights-based approach. Its goals include achieving social justice, a minimum standard of living, equitable access and equal opportunity to services and benefits, and a commitment to meeting the needs of all South Africans with a special emphasis on the needs of the most disadvantaged people in the society.

The right to dignity for all citizens is the core of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108/1996). This basic human rights value endorses the inherent worth of all human beings, as well as equity without bias based on gender, race or religion. In addition to this, the White Paper for Social Welfare (RSA, Ministry for Social Welfare and Population Development, 1997) states that social welfare services and programmes must be based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as articulated in the Constitution of the country. The social developmental approach is relevant as it embraces human rights values and ensures socio-economic development. It is therefore of immense importance for the social work profession to incorporate the new approach into its professional interventions.

The research tool was administered to the social work practitioners who are in the employment of the Department of Social Development, Gauteng Province. The respondents confirmed that the developmental approach to welfare was essential and has been adopted, as reflected on the policy documents and frameworks that guide service delivery. Implementation of the developmental approach in practice, however, poses some challenges as the model has not yet been adopted by some practitioners who have to implement policy.

The aim of this study was thus to investigate the experiences of social workers regarding the current implementation of a developmental social welfare approach.

The objectives of this research study were the following:

  • to conceptualise theoretically the social developmental approach within the field of social welfare;
  • to explore and describe social workers’ experiences regarding the implementation of the developmental social welfare approach in practice;
  • to identify the challenges social workers are experiencing in the implementation of the developmental social welfare approach in practice; and
  • to make recommendations, based on the research findings, to enhance the effective implementation of a developmental social welfare approach in social work.
  • Against this background the study was guided by the following research question:

  • What are the experiences of social work practitioners regarding the implementation of a developmental social welfare approach within the Department of Social Development, Gauteng Province?

A qualitative research approach was used to investigate the experiences of social workers regarding the implementation of a social developmental approach. Applied research focuses on problem solving in practice and emphasizes the participation of the people who are experiencing a problem, by involving them in finding the solution to the problem. In this study applied research was applicable to contribute towards solving the problems related to the implementation of the developmental approach in practice. In the context of qualitative research the collective case study design was utilized as the most appropriate case study design, because the researcher wanted to further her understanding of a ‘social issue’ namely the implementation of the social developmental approach to social welfare services.

The data collection method entailed focus group discussions. Qualitative data was collected through interviews of group members. The participants were social workers within the Department of Social Development employed in the five regions of Gauteng Province. There was one focus group, consisting of 10 participants, in each region; thus the researcher conducted five focus groups with 50 participants in total. The researcher utilized a combination of stratified and systematic sampling to select the participants for the five focus groups.

The process used in data collection for the study entailed initially a pilot study which was used to test the focus group interview schedule among respondents who were not included in the focus group discussions that were held for data collection for the study. Using the Creswell method of data analysis, the data that was collected in the focus group discussions was subsequently analysed, interpreted and finally displayed in the form of themes and subthemes.

The goal of the study was definitely achieved as the study determined not only that there is a need for ongoing training and reorientation of social workers toward the implementation of the developmental approach in practice, but also the revelation that there is a need to develop an action plan and clear procedure guidelines on how to implement the approach in practice, at national level. From a qualitative perspective, it is thus recommended that a procedure guideline and a national plan to implement the social developmental approach in practice should be developed in order to enhance the implementation process.

AFRIKAANS : In Suid-Afrika is die toewyding om om te skakel na die ontwikkelings-benadering, met die doel om armoede op te hef en die maatskaplike en ekonomiese ontwikkeling te integreer, duidelik te lese in die White Paper for Social Welfare (RSA, Departement van Welsyn en Bevolkingsontwikkeling, 1997), die Reconstruction and Development Programme (1994), die Growth Employment and Redistribution strategy (1996), die Policy on Financial Awards to Service Providers (2005) en die Integrated Service Delivery Model (ISDM) (2005). Hierdie beleidsdokumente poog om maatskaplike doelwitte en ekonomiese ontwikkeling te integreer binne ’n ontwikkelingsbenadering tot maatskaplike welsyn.

Binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks is die maatskaplike ontwikkelings-beleid tot maatskaplike welsyn stewig geanker in ’n regte-gebaseerde benadering. Die doelstellings hiervan sluit in die bereiking van maatskaplike geregtigheid, ’n minimum-lewenstandaard, billike toegang en gelyke geleentheid tot dienste en voordele, en ’n verbintenis om in die behoeftes van alle Suid-Afrikaners te voorsien, met besondere klem op die behoeftes van die mees benadeelde mense in die samelewing.

Die reg tot waardigheid vir alle burgers is die kern van die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika (Akte 108/1996). Hierdie basiese menseregtewaarde onderskryf die inherente waarde van alle mense, asook gelykheid sonder vooroordeel gegrond op gender, ras of geloof. Daarbenewens stel die White Paper for Social Welfare (RSA, Departement van Welsyn en Bevolkingsontwikkeling, 1997) dat maatskaplike welsynsdienste en –programme gegrond moet wees op respek vir menseregte en fundamentele vryhede, soos uiteengesit in die land se Grondwet. Die maatskaplike ontwikkelings-benadering is relevant omdat dit menseregte omarm en sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling verseker. Dit is daarom van ontsaglike belang vir die beroep maatskaplike werk om hierdie nuwe benadering in sy professionele bemoeienis te inkorporeer.

Die navorsingshulpbron is beskikbaar gestel aan die maatskaplike werkers in diens van die Departement Maatskaplike Ontwikkeling, Gauteng Provinsie. Die respondente het bevestig dat die ontwikkelings-benadering tot welsyn noodsaaklik is en dat dit aangeneem is, soos gereflekteer word in die beleidsdokumente en –raamwerke wat dienslewering rig. Die implementering van die ontwikkelings-benadering lewer egter in die praktyk ’n aantal probleme op, aangesien die model nog nie aangeneem is deur sommige praktisyns wat die beleid moet implementeer nie.

Die doel van hierdie studie was dus om die ervarings van maatskaplike werkers aangaande die huidige toepassing van ’n ontwikkelings- maatskaplike welsyn-beleid te ondersoek.

Die doelwitte van hierdie navorsingstudie was die volgende:

  • om die maatskaplike ontwikkelings-benadering teoreties te konseptualiseer binne die veld van maatskaplike welsyn;
  • om die ervarings van maatskaplike werkers aangaande die toepassing van die ontwikkelings- maatskaplike welsyn-benadering in die praktyk te verken en te beskryf;
  • om die uitdagings te identifiseer wat maatskaplike werkers in die praktyk ervaar met die toepassing van die ontwikkelings- maatskaplike welsyn-benadering; en
  • om, gebaseer op die navorsingsbevindings, voorstelle te maak ter verbetering van die doeltreffende implementering van ’n ontwikkelings- maatskaplike welsyn-benadering in maatskaplike werk.
  • Teen hierdie agtergrond is die studie begelei deur die volgende navorsingsvraag:

  • Wat is die ervarings van maatskaplikewerk praktisyns in die toepassing van ’n ontwikkelings- maatskaplike welsyn-benadering binne die Departement Maatskaplike Ontwikkeling, Gauteng Provinsie?

’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsbenadering is gebruik om die ervarings van maatskaplike werkers te ondersoek in die toepassing van ’n maatskaplike ontwikkelings-benadering. Toegepaste navorsing fokus op probleemoplossing in die praktyk en beklemtoon die deelname van die mense wat die probleem ervaar deur hulle te betrek by die vind van die oplossing vir die probleem. In hierdie studie was toegepaste navorsing toepaslik om by te dra tot die oplossing van probleme aangaande die toepassing van die ontwikkelings-benadering in die praktyk. Binne die konteks van kwalitatiewe navorsing is die kollektiewe gevallestudie-ontwerp gebruik as die geskikste gevallestudie-ontwerp, omdat die navorser haar begrip van ’n ‘maatskaplike kwessie’ wou uitbrei, naamlik die toepassing van die maatskaplike ontwikkelings-benadering in maatskaplike welsynsdienste.

Die data insamelingsmetode het fokusgroepbesprekings behels. Kwalitatiewe data is versamel deur onderhoude met groeplede. Die deelnemers was maatskaplike werkers binne die Departement van Maatskaplike Ontwikkeling, in diens in die vyf streke van Gauteng Provinsie. Daar was een fokusgoep,bestaande uit 10 deelnemers, in elke streek; dus het die navorser vyf fokusgroepe gelei, met ’n totaal van 50 deelnemers. Die navorser het gebruik gemaak van ’n kombinasie van gestratifiseerde en sistematiese steekproef tegnieke ten einde die deelnemers vir die vyf fokusgroepe te selekteer.

Die proses wat tydens dataversameling vir die studie gebruik is, het aanvanklik ’n loodsstudie behels. Dit is gebruik om die fokusgroep se onderhoudskedule te toets onder respondente wat nie ingesluit is nie in die fokusgroep-besprekings wat gehou is vir dataversameling vir die studie. Deur gebruik te maak van die Creswell data-analisemetode is die data wat versamel is tydens die fokusgroep-besprekings vervolgens geanaliseer, geďnterpreteer en eindelik voorgestel in die vorm van temas en sub-temas.

Die doel van hierdie studie is definitief bereik, aangesien die studie bepaal het dat daar nie slegs ’n behoefte bestaan vir voortgesette opleiding en heroriëntasie van maatskaplike werkers ten opsigte van die toepassing van die ontwikkelings-benadering in praktyk nie, maar ook dat daar ’n behoefte is aan die ontwikkeling van ’n operasionele plan en duidelike prosedure riglyne vir die implementering van die benadering in die praktyk op nasionale vlak. Vanuit ’n kwalitatiewe perspektief word daar dus voorgestel dat ’n prosedure riglyn en nasionale plan ontwikkel word vir die implementering van die maatskaplike ontwikkelingsbenadering in die praktyk, ten einde die implementeringsproses te verbeter.

© 2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Dlangamandla, VP 2010, The experiences of social workers regarding the implementation of a developmental social welfare approach within the Department of Social Development Gauteng Province, MSW dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-08172011-160309/ >

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