Title page for ETD etd-08132012-110141

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Feenstra, Carla
URN etd-08132012-110141
Document Title The possible effect of food supplements in the early grades on intelligence scores
Degree MEd
Department Educational Psychology
Advisor Name Title
Prof K Maree Co-Supervisor
Dr S Bester Supervisor
  • micronutrients
  • psychological testing
  • learner
  • malnutrition
  • cognitive development
  • the paper and pencil games level 3
  • true experimental design
  • pre-test post-test control group design
Date 2012-04-18
Availability unrestricted
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a meal supplement fortified with micronutrients would, statistically, significantly improve the intelligence scores of Grade 3 and 4 learners. The data collection procedures in this study took the form of a pre-test post-test control group design. The Paper and Pencil Games (PPG) Level 3, a standardised psychological test, was administered before and after the respondents were exposed to the meal supplements. For a treatment period of 16 weeks the experimental group received the meal supplement fortified with micronutrients and the control group the meal supplement without any added micronutrients. Data analysis took the form of statistical analysis to determine whether the meal supplements consumed by those in the experimental group could significantly contribute to improving their intelligence scores.

The results indicated statistically significant increases in scores, between the pretest and post-test on the various scales of the PPG, of both the experimental and control group on the one hand, but no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups on the post-test on the other. The null hypothesis that there are no (statistically significant) differences between the average post-test scores (V, NV, and T) of the experimental and control groups could not be rejected. However, the increase between the pre-test and post-test stanine scores of the two treatment groups has led to recommendations for further research.

Copyright 2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria

Please cite as follows:

Feenstra, C 2011, The possible effect of food supplements in the early grades on intelligence scores, MEd dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-08132012-110141 / >


  Filename       Size       Approximate Download Time (Hours:Minutes:Seconds) 
 28.8 Modem   56K Modem   ISDN (64 Kb)   ISDN (128 Kb)   Higher-speed Access 
  dissertation.pdf 2.79 Mb 00:12:56 00:06:39 00:05:49 00:02:54 00:00:14

Browse All Available ETDs by ( Author | Department )

If you have more questions or technical problems, please Contact UPeTD.