Title page for ETD etd-08132010-143946

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Labuschagne, Annemarie
Email annie@csvet.co.za
URN etd-08132010-143946
Document Title Haemorrhagic bowel syndrome in grower pigs
Degree MMEdVet
Department Production Animal Studies
Advisor Name Title
Dr J A Pickard Co-Supervisor
Dr B T Spencer Supervisor
  • South Africa
  • Lawsonia intracellularis
  • L. Intracellularis
  • haemorrhagic bowel syndrome
  • HBS
Date 2010-04-16
Availability unrestricted

In the past five years generally well managed farms reported an increase in acute deaths in their grower herds to their consulting veterinarian. At the same time reports from across the world indicated that this is not a problem seen only in South Africa. The syndrome is generally referred to as haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS), red gut or balloon pig. Veterinarians generally believed that the cause of these acute deaths were due to the acute form of Lawsonia intracellularis, also known as porcine haemorrhagic enteropathy (PHE). Because neither the clinical symptoms present prior to death, nor the post mortem changes were typical for a L. intracellularis case it was decided to investigate this syndrome in more depth. Five commercial farms were purposefully selected where growers that died peracutely were necropsied and intestinal samples collected for histological as well as bacteriological examination. A total of 28 pigs were sampled with the histological sections from all samples indicating a Clostridium species as the cause and from 11 of samples Clostridium perfringens were cultured as the predominant bacterium. Although pigs on the farms were seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis there was no evidence that this bacterium was the cause of death in the pigs. Rather the aetiology points to C. perfringens being the cause, possibly together with other predisposing factors such as rapid growth, high ambient temperatures and interruption in fedding patterns. Based on these results further studies to determine the toxin type as well as predisposing factors should be done.

AFRIKAANS : Gedurende die afgelope vyf jaar het plase met ’n algemene goeie bestuur ’n verhoging in akute vrektes in hulle groeikuddes opgemerk en hulle het hulle kommer oor die vrektes aan hulle konsulterende veeartse oorgedra. Dič verhoging in groeivrektes is nie uniek aan Suid Afrika nie. Dieselfde tendens is regoor die węreld opgemerk, maar niemand is seker wat presies die oorsaak van die akute vrektes is nie. In die literatuur word daar na “haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS)” oftewel hemoragiese derm sindroom verwys. Boere verwys na die sindroom as rooiderm of “balloon pig”. Tot nou toe het veeartse aanvaar dat die oorsaak moontlik Lawsonia intracellularis is. Die organisme is verantwoordelik vir ’n groep sindrome waarvan “porcine haemorrhagic enteropathy” die akute form is. Omrede die kliniese simptome en die nadoodse ondersoek nie tipies vir ’n L. Intracellularis geval is nie, is daar besluit om die akute vrektes verder te ondersoek. Vyf plase, waar die sindroom baie voorkom, is geidentifiseer en dermonsters is geneem vir histopatalogiese sowel as mikrobiologiese ondersoeke. In totaal is monsters van 28 varke geneem. Die histologies seksies van al die monsters het gedui op ’n Clostridium spesie as die hoofoorsaak van vrekte en Clostridium perfringens is uit 11 van die monsters geisoleer. Alhoewel al 5 plase serologies positief getoets is vir Lawsonia intracellularis, was daar geen bewyse gewees dat die bakterium verantwoordelik vir die vrektes was nie. Die etiologie dui eerder op C. perfringens as die oorsaak. Daarby saam speel ander faktore soos vinnige groei, hoë omgewingstemperature asook onderbrekings in beskikbaarheid van voer heelwaarskynlkik ’n belangrike rol in die sindroom. Verdere navorsing om die toksien tipe te identifiseer asook die identifikasie van moontlike faktore wat die sindroom aanhelp moet gedoen word.

Copyright © 2009, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Labuschagne, A 2009, Haemorrhagic bowel syndrome in grower pigs, MMedVet dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-08132010-143946/ >

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