Document Type Doctoral Thesis Author Phuthego, Mothusi email@example.com URN etd-08112008-143414 Document Title An evaluation of the integration of indigenous musical arts in the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus and the implementation thereof in the primary schools curriculum in Botswana Degree DMus Department Music Supervisor
Advisor Name Title Prof J Hinch Supervisor Keywords
- arts education
- performing arts
- lower primary
- indigenous musical arts
- focus group
- content analysis
Date 2008-04-09 Availability unrestricted Abstract
The implementation of the Creative and Performing Arts (CPA) syllabus at lower primary school level in Botswana has been carried out without paying due regard to all that should be in place. As a result, the implementation exercise has been hampered by some administrative and logistical problems. The content for Creative and Performing Arts as a curriculum subject draws from Western culture, primarily due to the proliferation of literary sources for such content. It has therefore been a matter of urgent concern to establish the extent to which local culture, in the form of indigenous musical arts, have been integrated into the syllabus.
The methods employed in this study are qualitative. They include data collection by means of semi - structured interviews in focus group discussions, and content analysis of the syllabus document.
The results of this research suggest that the indigenous musical arts in the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus content are generally representative of the culture of the Batswana. But the indigenous musical arts content in the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus could be representative of the indigenous culture of the Batswana to a much greater extent, especially as it al lows for the use of local resources and contains objectives that explicitly refer to the inclusion of the musical culture of a local community. Current limitations are mainly caused by the teachers ’ short comings in terms of appropriate teaching approaches and their vague under standing of the main concept that they should master, namely ‘integration’. The results of the study further indicate that teachers cover most of the indigenous musical arts in their lessons. The results also indicate that teachers are usually able to relate music with physical education, but are unable to integrate content as much as it is practicable due to lack of knowledge and skill on their part.
On syllabus implementation, the results reveal that school administrators feel that they have not been duly recognized as key players in the implementation exercise. They suggest that specialization in the teaching of the various components of the Creative and Performing Arts be encouraged. They also suggest a review of the syllabus that would allow primary school teachers more input.
As far as the teachers are concerned, the results reveal that, the implementation workshops they have attended have not been adequate in equipping them with the necessary skills to teach the subject. They, like the school heads, suggest specialization by teachers. They also suggest the following: a review of the syllabus and teaching and learning materials; provision of in-service training; close monitoring by the implementing authority, and the provision of resources.
The conclusion reached is that the syllabus allows the teacher the freedom to draw as much as possible from the community, thus making learning more relevant to the learner. With regard to syllabus implementation, the implementation exercise is hampered by the absence of appropriate resources and facilities as well as the necessary support in the form of needs - oriented in-service training. Owing to lack of resources and in-service training that addresses specific needs, the teachers are not very effective in syllabus delivery.
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