Title page for ETD etd-07272012-141113


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Liebenberg, Irma
Email imalieb@gmail.com
URN etd-07272012-141113
Document Title Die resepsie van Anna Rudolph se Afrikaanse kinderliedere deur Afrikaanssprekers (Afrikaans)
Degree MMus
Department Music
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof H H van der Mescht Supervisor
Keywords
  • reception
  • children’s songs
  • Afrikaans-speakers
  • Afrikaans folk songs
  • Afrikaans singing culture
  • resepsie
  • kinderliedjies
  • Anna Rudolph
  • Afrikaanssprekers
  • Afrikaanse volksliedjies
  • Afrikaanse sangkultuur
Date 2012-04-17
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
In die 1970’s (voor die ontwikkeling van gevorderde klanktegnologie) was Afrikaanssprekers gedwing om hulle self te vermaak. Volksliedjies en ander Afrikaanse liedjies is dikwels onbegeleid of met eenvoudige begeleiding gesing. In skole is kinders aan verpligte sangonderrig blootgestel en Afrikaanse kinderliedjies soos dié van Anna Rudolph is landwyd deur Afrikaanssprekers gesing. Vandag (2011) word hierdie liedjies baie selde gehoor, en sonder “backtracks”, mikrofone en klankversterkers vind feitlik geen kindersang meer plaas nie.

Die doel van die studie is gemotiveer deur twee moontlike negatiewe gevolge van foutiewe aanvangsonderrig in ag te neem: die huidige (2011) positiewe resepsie van onaanvaarbaar geïntoneerde en swak gekomponeerde populêre liedere, en baie Afrikaanssprekers se skynbare onvermoë om te kan sing. Deur op die vertrekpunt van musiekonderrig en spesifiek die aanleer van Afrikaanse kinderliedjies soos dié van Anna Rudolph te fokus, is resepsie-aspekte van Afrikaanse kinderliedere uitgewys.

Die literatuurstudie het die bestudering van Afrikaanssprekers se sangkultuur vanaf die 1970’s tot vandag (2011) en die resepsie van kinderliedere deur kinders behels. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Verskeie onderhoude is gevoer. 45 van Rudolph se kinderliedere is geëvalueer volgens erkende kriteria vir kinderliedere en ’n katalogus van die kultuurbydrae van Rudolph is saamgestel. Die uitvoer van ’n veldproef wat die samestelling van ’n nuwe Anna Rudolph-CD en -bladmusiek insluit, onderskei hierdie navorsing van enige vorige soortgelyke studie.

Probleme ondervind tydens die studie sluit die finansiering van die produksie van die CD en die voortdurende bemarking en verkope daarvan in. Die saamstel van die katalogus van Anna Rudolph se kultuurbydrae het ’n uitgebreide soektog behels en is steeds onvolledig, aangesien Rudolph op versoek en soos wat geleenthede hulle voorgedoen het, onverpoos gekomponeer het en die komposisies dus nie almal gepubliseer is nie. Baie van die gepubliseerde komposisies se publikasiedatums kon ook nie opgespoor word nie.

Die bevindinge waartoe geraak is, toon die vervanging van die Afrikaanse sangkultuur van die 1970’s met ’n elektroniese luisterkultuur (2011). Hierdie transformasie het oor ’n tydperk van 40 jaar plaasgevind. Daar bestaan reeds ’n hele geslag nuwe Afrikaanse ouers met klein kindertjies wat nie kan of wil sing nie. Dit bring mee dat die resepsie van baie Afrikaanse kinderliedere soos wat dit in musiekbundels verskyn kommerwekkend negatief is. Die evaluering van ’n seleksie van Anna Rudolph se kinderliedere het getoon dat die musiek van die 1970’s steeds vandag gebruik kan word, alhoewel sommige lirieke vernuwe moet word. Die verpakking van die liedjies in CD-formaat in plaas van musiekbundels is van deurslaggewende belang.

Die navorsing met veral die suksesvolle uitvoering van die veldproef waartydens 1500 Anna Rudolph-musiekstelle (met opnames uit die 1970’s) verkoop is, bring die navorser by die volgende aanbeveling: Die hernude verwekking van ’n Afrikaanse sanglus moet nou dringend by klein kindertjies begin. Vir die strewe na hierdie doelwit moet daar deurlopend CD’s van Afrikaanse kinderliedjies vervaardig word wat gebaseer is op die volgende praktiese prosedure:

  • Die redigering van sekere Anna Rudolph-kinderliedjies asook dié van ander kinderliedkomponiste (van die 1970’s);
  • Die krities-wetenskaplike evaluering (deur musiekkenners) van bestaande kinderliedere aan die hand van erkende kinderliedkriteria;
  • Die implementering van ’n kinderpaneel om kinderliedere (wat voldoen aan die wetenskaplike kinderliedkriteria) te resepteer vir gebruik in skoolverband en by die ouerhuis;
  • Die opneem van bogenoemde kinderliedjies op CD’s in ’n eietydse idioom en met gebruik van kindersangertjies en kinderkore as kunstenaars; en
  • Die effektiewe verspreiding van sulke CD’s na Afrikaanse skole.

ENGLISH : During the 1970s, before the development of advanced sound technology, Afrikaans speakers were compelled to entertain themselves. This included singing songs. Folk songs and other Afrikaans songs were often sung, either unaccompanied or with simple accompaniments. In schools children were exposed to compulsory tuition in singing, and children’s songs with Afrikaans texts, such as those by Anna Rudolph, were sung throughout the country. Currently (2011) these songs are seldom heard and almost no singing by children takes place without backtracks, microphones and sound amplifiers.

The motivation for this study was the consideration of two results that could be regarded as negative due to incorrect initial instruction: the current (2011) positive reception of unacceptable intonation and badly-composed popular songs, and the apparent inability of many Afrikaans-speaking people to sing. By focussing on the starting point of music education, specifically the learning of Afrikaans children’s songs such as those written by Anna Rudolph, aspects of the reception of Afrikaans children’s songs were identified.

The literature review covered studies of the singing habits of Afrikaans speakers from the 1970s until the present (2011) and the reception of children’s songs by children. A qualitative research design was used. Various interviews were conducted. 45 of Rudolph’s children’s songs were evaluated using recognised criteria for such songs and a catalogue of Rudolph’s cultural contribution was compiled. In the conducting of a field experiment a new CD of children’s songs by Anna Rudolph, plus sheet music, was produced, and this aspect sets the research apart from any previous, similar studies.

Problems that were experienced during the study included the financing of the production of the CD as well as its ongoing marketing and sales. The compilation of the catalogue of Anna Rudolph’s cultural contribution required extensive research and it remains incomplete because Rudolph composed incessantly on request as well as for specific occasions. Consequently, not all the compositions were published. It was also not possible to ascertain the dates of publication of all the compositions.

The conclusions reached indicate that the Afrikaans singing culture of the 1970s has been supplanted by an electronic listening culture (2011). This transformation has taken place over a period of 40 years. There is, therefore, a whole new generation of Afrikaans-speaking parents with young children who either cannot or will not sing. This results in a disturbingly negative reception of Afrikaans children’s songs that are published only as sheet music. The evaluation of a selection of Anna Rudolph’s children’s songs showed that this music from the 1970s can still be used today, although some lyrics would need to be updated. The packaging of the songs in a CD format instead of as sheet music would be of cardinal importance.

The research gleaned from the successful conducting of the field experiment during which 1500 music sets of songs by Anna Rudolph (containing recordings made during the 1970s) were sold leads the researcher to the following recommendation: A new desire to sing in Afrikaans should be inculcated in young children as a matter of urgency. To attain this objective CDs of Afrikaans children’s songs should continually be produced, and these should be based on the following practical procedures:

  • The editing of selected Anna Rudolph children’s songs, and also those of other composers of children’s songs (from the 1970s);
  • The critical and scientific evaluation of existing children’s songs (by music experts) according to recognised criteria for children’s songs;
  • The formation of a reception panel of children to evaluate children’s songs (which satisfy the criteria for children’s songs) for use in schools and at home;
  • The recording of such children’s songs on CDs in a contemporary idiom sung by children’s voices and children’s choirs; and
  • The effective distribution of such CDs to Afrikaans schools.

Additional information available on a CD, DVD stored at the Merensky Library on Level 3

Copyright © 2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Liebenberg, I 2011, Die resepsie van Anna Rudolph se Afrikaanse kinderliedere deur afrikaanssprekers (Afrikaans) , MMus dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07272012-141113 / >

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