Title page for ETD etd-07272005-111410

Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Phibion, Otukile Sindiso
URN etd-07272005-111410
Document Title Bakalanga music and dance in Botswana and Zimbabwe
Degree DMus
Department Music
Advisor Name Title
Prof C Van Niekerk Committee Chair
Prof I Burger Committee Co-Chair
  • gumbu
  • wosana
  • sangoma
  • traditional musical instruments
  • rain praying
  • music Zimbabwe history and criticism
  • music Botswana history and criticism
  • folk song Botswana
  • bakalanga
  • folk song Zimbabwe
  • dance Botswana
  • dance Zimbabwe
  • njelele
  • mwali
Date 2003-04-19
Availability unrestricted
Botswana, formerly known as the Bechuanaland Protectorate, is a country with diverse tribal and religious cultures. Bakalanga are one of the tribes found in Botswana and also in Westrn Zimbabwe. The Western part of the Zimbabwean Bukalanga region was included in the then Bechuanaland Protectorate when its border with Zimbabwe was fixed.

To date, Botswana's traditional music has been passed from generation to generation, entirely orally. The main contribution of this study is collecting, documenting and preserving Bakalanga traditional music-making.

After abolishing official usage of the Ikalanga language, at independence in 1966, in the early 1990's the Botswana government re-discovered that a nation without culture is a lost nation. Funds were then set aside to be used annually for the development of culture. In using these funds to revive their culture and traditional music, Bakalanga of North Eastern Botswana declared 21 May to be their annual cultural day. Photographs and video footage of these annual cultural festivals were taken by the researcher to help illustrate certain aspects of Ikalanga music and dance in this thesis.

Several factors influencing Ikalanga traditional music were taken into consideration: the historical background of Bakalanga, their relationship with other tribes such as the Amandebele, their education, their language in relation to other languages and the missionary influence. Ikalanga traditional music instruments are described. The Mwali religion, which forms the basis of wosana music, linking Bakalanga of Botswana and those of Zimbabwe through the Njelele sacred place joint annual ceremonies, is discussed at length.

Different Ikalanga traditional music types are addressed as follows:

Rain Making/Praying music; Wosana and Mayile

Traditional Music for Happy Occasions and Entertainment; Ndazula, Mukomoto, Woso, Iperu, Tshikitsha, Bhoro and Ncuzu./ Maskhukhu

Traditional Music for Healing Purposes; Mazenge (Shumba), Sangoma and Mantshomane.

All the above music types are practised within Bukalanga communities publicly, with the exception of mazenge, which is regarded as sacred and private. Bhoro is also extinct in Zimbabwe. The notation of Ikalanga traditional basic musical themes is provided, except for mazenge and ncuzu. which were not found anywhere during this research.

2003, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Additional information available on a CD stored at Special Collections, Level 5 of the Merensky Library

Please cite as follows:

Phibion, OS 2003, Bakalanga music and dance in Botswana and Zimbabwe, DMus thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07272005-111410/ >


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