Title page for ETD etd-07262006-093031


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Du Plessis, Hendrik Christoffel
URN etd-07262006-093031
Document Title 'n Staatkundige ontleding van geselekteerde standpunte tydens die grondwetlike onderhandelingsprosesse in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika : 1992-1996 (Afrikaans)
Degree PhD (Political Science)
Department Political Sciences
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof M E Muller Committee Chair
Mr J T Bekker Committee Co-Chair
Keywords
  • constitutional law South Africa
  • constitutional amendments South Africa
  • constitutional history South Africa
Date 2001-04-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: In Suid-Afrika het 'n onderhandelde oorgang na demokrasie van 1992 af tot 1996 voorgekom waartydens twee grondwette deur die betrokke politieke partye onderhandel is. Die eerste bydrae in die studie is dat aangetoon word dat die Suid¨-Afrikaanse voorbeeld van die onderhandelde oorgang die siening in die literatuur ondersteun dat politieke partye 'n belangrike rol in die uitvoering van oorgangstake kan vervul indien hul oor die vermoŽ beskik.

Die hoof vakkundige probleem wat in die studie gestel is, is of die grondwetlike onderhandelingsprosesse daarop dui of daar 'n noodwendige verhouding is tussen die verwesenliking van 'n party se standpunte in 'n grondwet, en die politieke mag waaroor 'n party beskik. 'n Analise van die standpunte van die drie grootste partye in vergelyking met die onderhandelingsresultate het getoon dat daar wel 'n verhouding bestaan tussen die verwesenliking van die hoeveelheid standpunte in 'n grondwet en die politieke mag waaroor 'n party beskik. Waar die twee hoofpartye (die ANC en die NP) ten opsigte van die 1993-Grondwet in 'n relatiewe magsewewig tot mekaar was, is 'n kompromie tussen die NP se hoofdoelwit van magsdeling en die ANC se hoofdoelwit van meerderheidsregering basies getref deurdat kernaspekte van beide hierdie hoofdoelwitte verwesenlik is. Met die 1996-Grondwet, waar die ANC oor die groter politieke mag beskik het, is die grondwetlike resultaat nader aan die hoofdoelwit van meerderheidsregering as aan magsdeling. Die IVP het aan beide onderhandelingsprosesse onttrek, maar sodoende is die invloed van die magsbalans tussen die partye op die grondwetlike resultaat nie ontduik nie. Die rede is dat diť party nie daarin geslaag het om die oorhoofse beleidsdoelwit van 'n opvallende federale bedeling wat baie gedesentraliseerd is te realiseer nie.

'n Verdere bydrae in die studie is dat aangetoon is hoe suksesvol partye tot die bereiking van 'n demokratiese ooreenkoms in Suid-Afrika bygedra het. In hierdie verband is 'n oorhoofse onderhandelingsingesteldheid met behulp van 'n raamwerk geÔdentifiseer wat elke party met onderhandelinge gevolg het. 'n Party dra hiervolgens suksesvol tot die bereiking van 'n demokratiese ooreenkoms by deur 'n basiese balans te handhaaf tussen 'n samewerkende onderhandelingsingesteldheid (waardeur die onderhandelingsverhouding bevorder word) en 'n handhawende onderhandelingsingesteldheid (waardeur ondersteuners se belange bevorder word).

Die ANC het ten opsigte van die 1993-Grondwet min of meer sodanige balans gehandhaaf ('n effens meer samewerkende as handhawende ingesteldheid), terwyl die klem van die Party na die verwesenliking van die belange van ondersteuners verskuif het ('n meestal handhawende ingesteldheid) met die onderhandeling van die 1996¨Grondwet. Die NP het ook ten opsigte van die 1993-Grondwet sodanige basiese balans gehandhaaf (effens meer handhawend as samewerkend), terwyl 'n ingesteldheid van meer samewerkend as handhawend ten opsigte van die daarstelling van die 1996-Grondwet openbaar is. Die IVP se onderhandelingstyl van vermyding, deurdat aan beide grondwetskrywende prosesse onttrek is, het beteken dat die Party nie 'n bewussyn openbaar het dat dit noodsaaklik is om ook toegewings te doen ten einde 'n wedersyds aanvaarbare oplossing te vind wat tot die vestiging van die demokrasie lei nie.

ENGLISH: A negotiated transfer to democracy took place in South Africa from 1992 to 1996. In this period two constitutions were negotiated by the political parties concerned. The study shows, as a first contribution, that the South African example of the negotiated transfer supports the view in the literature that political parties can play an important role in the execution of tasks related to a transition, if they have the necessary capability.

The main problem stated in the study is whether an analysis of the constitutional negotiation processes will show whether an inevitable relation exists between the realisation of the standpoints of a party in a constitution, and the political power of such a party. The standpoints of the three major parties compared with the negotiation results showed that there was indeed such a relation (between the realisation of the number of standpoints in a constitution and the political power of a party). The two major parties (the ANC and the NP) were in a relative balance of power with the negotiation of the 1993 Constitution, and a compromise was therefore reached between the NP's general policy goal of power sharing and the ANC's general policy goal of majority government. Core aspects of both these policy goals were realised. The ANC had the greater political power with the negotiation of the 1996 Constitution and the negotiation result was therefore closer to the policy goal of majority government than to power sharing. The IFP withdrew from both negotiation processes, but did not escape the influence of the balance of power between the parties so doing, because the general policy goal (of a strongly federal, decentralised system) were not achieved.

The study further shows to what extent parties contributed successfully to the democratic agreement in South Africa. In this regard, a negotiation disposition that each party followed in negotiations was identified by means of a framework. A party contributes successfully to the realisation of a democratic agreement by achieving a basic balance between a cooperative disposition (through which the negotiation agreement is promoted) and an assertive disposition (through which the interests of supporters are promoted).

The ANC managed to achieve such a basic balance regarding the 1993 Constitution (a disposition of being slightly more cooperative than assertive was identified), while the focus shifted to the realisation of the interests of supporters (a mostly assertive disposition) with the negotiation of the 1996 Constitution. The NP also achieved such a basic balance in regard to the 1993 Constitution (slightly more assertive than cooperative), while a disposition of more cooperative than assertive was shown in the realisation of the 1996 Constitution. The IFP's negotiation style of avoidance (in withdrawing from both constitution writing processes), meant that it did not reveal the consciousness that it is also necessary to make concessions in order to find a mutually acceptable solution that would lead to the establishment of democracy.

© 2000, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Du Plessis, HC 2000, 'n Staatkundige ontleding van geselekteerde standpunte tydens die grondwetlike onderhandelingsprosesse in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika: 1992-1996, DPhil thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07262006-093031/ >

H474/ag

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