Title page for ETD etd-07252012-180601

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Engelbrecht, Adel
Email adel.engelbrecht@gmail.com
URN etd-07252012-180601
Document Title Cross-sectional study investigating the exercise behavior, preferences, and quality of life of primary brain tumor patients
Degree Master of Arts
Department Biokinetics, Sport and Leisure Sciences
Advisor Name Title
Prof P E Kruger Supervisor
  • prevalence
  • kwaliteit van lewe
  • brein ontnemende neutrofiese factor (BDNF)
  • uitputting
  • bykomende terapie
  • brain tumor
  • adjuvant therapies
  • exercise intervention
  • moegheid
  • quality of life (QoL)
  • brain deprived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
  • fatigue
  • 5-HT (Serotonin)
  • depression
  • depressie
  • oefen intervensie
  • fatigue
  • breinfunksie
Date 2012-04-12
Availability unrestricted
Brain tumors are the second leading cause of cancer deaths in young adults ages 20- 39. (Armstrong et al., 2004) According to the South African Medical Research Council, there was an estimate 801 deaths because of brain cancer in South Africa in 2000. If these statistics are compared to other types of cancers like breast-, lung- and prostate cancers, is the prevalence of the diagnoses of brain tumors, a very small percentage. According to the Mayo clinic in South Africa, the estimate number of brain tumor incidences was 3% in 2007. Despite of these statistics with regards Brain tumors, one in six South African men and one in seven South African women will be diagnosed with cancer during their life times. Despite this small percentage, the diagnoses of brain tumors have escalated the last few years. The reason for these new statistics is still unknown.

With exercise that is becoming one of the most important adjuvant therapies for most diseases or illnesses, we may sustain this idea of using exercise intervention as an adjuvant therapy for brain tumor cancers we can prove this through many researches that has been done in the last few years. (Schwartz, 2003) Studies done by different researchers they found that exercise intervention is becoming increasingly recognized as a safe, feasible and beneficial supportive therapy for cancer patients both during and after the cessation of adjuvant therapy. (Jones et al., 2006) Exercise influences a lot of different systems in the body, to the advantage of the cancer patient (Schwartz, 2003) and emerging new research shows that physical exercise may boost brain function, which include improve mood. (Kong, 1999) Exercise, according to Cotman and Berchtold (2002) is commonly believed to be a behavioral strategy to relieve stress, and reduce depression and anxiety in humans. Exercise intervention further influence following aspects of the human body, namely brain deprived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT (Serotonin). Improvement of these could, in fact, lead to a better quality of life (QoL) of a brain tumor patient (Cotman & Berchtold, 2002).

Fatigue that sets in, due to the different cancer therapies, is also a factor that has an affect on depression and anxiety of the patient. Keeping still and rest to prevent fatigue were followed in previous regiment when working with cancer patients was followed. This approach, in fact, has a very negative effect on the patient. Being diagnosed with a brain tumor the patient will never be emotionally prepared for this type of information and it usually shatters their sense of well being and their personal security. All of these factors, especially depression, affect the patientís QoL. (Vaynman et al., 2004)

An exercise regiment for brain tumor patients has not yet been developed properly, because exercise intervention for familiar cancers could be problematic and not suitable for brain tumor patients. (Schwartz, 2003) Therefore, the purpose of this study is to further the knowledge and the field of expertise of exercise as an adjuvant therapy in brain tumor patients to better QoL over a larger period of time.

AFRIKAANS : Die tweede grootste leier in siektes tussen die ouderdomme van 20-39 jaar wat lewens eis is Brein gewasse (brein kanker). (Armstrong et al., 2004) Volgens die Suid- Afrikaanse Mediese Navorsingraad, is daar tot 801 gevalle van breingewas sterftes in die jaar 2000 aangemeld. As hierdie statistieke vergelyk word met statistieke van kanker wat meer prominent voorkom soos byvoorbeeld bors-, long-, en protaatkanker, lyk die voorkoms van breinkanker diagnosis maar na Ďn baie klein persentasie. Die Mayo Kliniek in Suid-Afrika het in 2007 bevind dat die voorkoms van breinkanker in Suid-Afrika Ďn persentasie van 3% uitgemaak het. Ten spyte van hierdie statistieke betreffende breingewasse, sal een uit elke ses mans en een uit elke sewe vroue, gediagnoseer word met een of ander kanker gedurende hulle leeftyd. Alhoewel die persentasie wat reeds genoem is maar na Ďn klein hoeveelheid lyk, het die voorkoms van breingewasse baie toegeneem in die laaste paar jaar en selfs maande. Die rede vir hierdie aansienlike toename is steeds onbekend.

Oefening word al hoe belangriker en word al hoe meer deur verskeie dokters voorgeskryf om te dien as Ďn bykomende behandeling vir verskeie siekte toestande. Dit word veral ook vir kanker pasiŽnte voorgeskryf. Oefen intervensie kan dus gebruik word vir breinkanker pasiŽnte, hierdie stelling gestaaf kan word, aangesien daar verskeie navorsings reeds bewys het dat oefening as bykomende terapie gebruik is vir kanker pasiŽnte. (Schwartz, 2003) Hierdie studies het bevind dat oefening as Ďn veilige, uitvoerbare en voordelige bykomende intervensie vir kanker pasiŽnte erken word. Hierdie intervensie kan tydens en na hoof kanker behandeling gebruik word (Jones et al., 2006).

Oefening beinvloed verskeie sisteme in die liggaam, tot voordeel van die kanker pasiŽnt. (Schwartz, 2003) Nuwe navorsing het ook aan die lig laat kom dat fisieke aktiwiteit Ďn persoon se breinfunksie bevorder, wat onder andere Ďn baie groot invloed het om die pasiŽnt se gemoedstoestand. (Kong, 1999) Volgens, Cotman and Berchtold (2002), is daarvolgens studies bewys dat oefenterapie Ďn manier is om stres te verlig, sowel as depressie en angstigheid in meeste mense.

Oefenterapie beinvloed ook die volgende aspekte positief in die menslike liggaam naamlik, Brein ontnemende neurtrofiese-faktor (BDNF) en 5-HT (Serotonien). Verbetering van hierdie faktore, kan ly tot Ďn beter kwaliteit van lewe van Ďn pasiŽnt wat met Ďn breingewas gediagnoseer is (Cotman & Berchtold, 2002).

Uitputting (moegheid) wat gewoonlik intree as gevolg van kanker terapie, is ook Ďn faktor wat Ďn effek het op die depressie- en angsvlakke van Ďn pasiŽnt. In vroeŽ behandelingsprotokol van kankerpasiŽnte, moes die pasiŽnt so stil as moontlik verkeer om sodoende uitputting of moegheid te voorkom. Hierdie benadering het in die uiteinde Ďn baie negatiewe effek op die pasiŽnte tot gevolg gehad. Ďn Persoon wat met Ďn breingewas gediagnoseer word sal nooit emosioneel voorbereid wees op hierdie diagnose nie en sodoende kan dit lei tot Ďn ineenstorting van die persoon se geestestoestand en persoonlike sekuriteit. Hierdie ďineenstortingĒ kan Ďn groot invloed hÍ op die kwaliteit van lewe van hierdie pasiŽnt (Vaynman et al., 2004).

Ďn Oefenintervensie protokol vir breinkanker pasiŽnte is nog nie voldoende vasgestel nie, aangesien oefenterapie intervensies wat vir bekende kankers problematies en selfs gevaarlik kan wees vir breingewas pasiŽnte nie. (Schwartz, 2003)

Daarom is die doel van die studie, om inligting te verkry en kennis in te samel om die veld van deskundiges uit te brei om sodoende Ďn oefenterapie protokol neer te lÍ vir breinkanker pasiŽnte. Hierdie protokol sal dus dien as Ďn bevordering van kwaliteit van lewe van hierdie pasiente deur middel van oefen intervensie as bykomende behandeling.

Copyright © 2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Engelbrecht, A 2011, Cross-sectional study investigating the exercise behavior, preferences, and quality of life of primary brain tumor patients, MA dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07252012-180601 / >


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