Title page for ETD etd-07182011-124717


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Hattam, Michelle
Email mich.hattam@gmail.com
URN etd-07182011-124717
Document Title The characteristics of a group of young children infected with HIV/AIDS at a regional hospital in Gauteng
Degree MCommunication Pathology
Department Communication Pathology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Ms S Geertsema Co-Supervisor
Prof B Louw Supervisor
Keywords
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • HIV
  • pediatric
  • ECI
  • early communication intervention
  • opportunistic infection
  • HIV/AIDS associated conditions
  • immunocompromised
  • highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • speech-language therapist and audiologist
  • Verworwe Immuniteitsgebreksindroom
  • Menslike Immuniteitsgebrekvirus
  • HAART
  • MIV
  • pediatries
  • VIGS
  • vroe kommunikasie intervensie
  • VKI
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • MIV/VIGS-verwante siektes
  • opportunistiese infeksie
  • AIDS
  • immuniteitsgekompromiseerd hoogsaktiewe antiret
  • spraaktaalterapeut en oudioloog
Date 2011-04-04
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
The effects of HIV/AIDS and subsequent opportunistic infections and/or associated conditions on the development of infected children are substantial. Considerable delays and/or disorders in communication development have been noted in the HIV/AIDS infected child, as well as the need for Early Communication Intervention (ECI) services for this population. A dearth of locally relevant data regarding the speech, language and hearing development of HIV/AIDS infected children within the South African context currently exists.

The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of a group of HIV/AIDS infected children being managed at an outreach clinic of regional hospital in Gauteng. A cross-sectional, retrospective, non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative research design was used in this study. The main objective was achieved by analysing the clinic records of 203 children infected with HIV/AIDS between the ages of 0 5 years 11months through the use of a pre-designed checklist. A questionnaire completed by four medical doctors practicing at the HIV/AIDS clinic within the hospital was also used. This allowed for the perceptions and practices of the medical doctors to be described.

Results revealed that the majority HIV/AIDS infected children being managed at the outreach clinic were significantly immunocompromised and diagnosed with Stage III or Stage IV HIV/AIDS infection. Furthermore, results indicated the presence of several opportunistic infections and HIV/AIDS associated conditions (such as Tuberculosis, Candidiasis and Encephalopathy). A positive finding was that 76% of the HIV/AIDS infected children (n=153) were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) at the time of data collection. The most outstanding finding was that very few of the children with HIV/AIDS being managed at the outreach clinic were recorded as having speech, language and/or hearing delays and/or disorders. Similarly, referrals to other professionals as recorded in the childrens hospital records seemed to be limited to Social Workers and Dietitians, with only one child recorded as being referred to a Speech-Language Therapist and Audiologist for further management. It was unclear whether more children were in fact referred for additional intervention by other professionals and this was simply not recorded in the childrens records, or whether these referrals were in fact not made.

Results from the questionnaires completed by the medical doctors working with the pediatric HIV/AIDS population within the outreach clinic were significant. Findings indicated that the majority of the respondents believed that HIV/AIDS infected infants were more at risk for developmental and communicative delays and/or disorders than the general population, and that this population would likely benefit from Speech-Language Therapy and/or Audiology intervention services. Respondents indicated that medical doctors working with the pediatric HIV/AIDS population were often not adequately informed regarding the effects of HIV/AIDS on communication development and that they would benefit from further training in this regard.

The need for further research regarding the characteristics of the pediatric HIV/AIDS population, particularly on a larger sample, was described. This would assist in the development of a guideline for ECI service delivery for children infected with HIV/AIDS. The need for further training of other professionals regarding the effects that HIV/AIDS has on the communication development of the infected child, to assist with necessary referrals and teamwork, was also highlighted.

AFRIKAANS : Suid-Afrika is een van die lande ter wreld, wat die hoogste voorkoms van Menslike Immuniteitsgebrekvirus/ Verworwe Immuniteitsgebreksindroom (MIV/VIGS), toon - met die pediatriese populasie op die voorfront van hierdie epidemie. Die effek wat MIV/VIGS en opeenvolgende opportunistiese infeksies en/of ander geassosieerde toestande op die ontwikkeling van kinders het, is verreikend. Internasionale literatuur beskryf agterstande en/of akwykings in die kommunikasie ontwikkeling van kinders wat met MIV/VIGS geinfekteer is. Die behoefte vir Vroe Kommunikasie Intervensie (VKI) vir hierdie populasie word ook gemeld. Daar bestaan egter slegs n beperkte hoeveelheid relevante, plaaslike literatuur met betrekking tot die spraak-, taal- en gehoorontwikkeling van kinders met MIV/VIGS binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks.

Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die kenmerke van n groep kinders, wat met MIV/VIGS besmet is en by n streekshospitaal in Gauteng behandel word, te beskryf. n Kwantitatiewe, nie-eksperimentele, terugwerkende, dwarsdeurige, beskrywende navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Die hoofdoelwit was bereik deur die kliniekrekords van kinders wat met MIV/VIGS besmet is, te analiseer deur van n vooraf-ontwerpte merklys gebruik te maak. Data is ook ingesamel deur middel van vraelyste wat deur mediese dokters, wat by MIV/VIGS klinieke binne die hospitale werk, voltooi is. Dit het toegelaat dat die persepsies en praktyke van die mediese dokters ook beskryf kon word.

Resultate het getoon dat die meerderheid kinders met MIV/VIGS, wat by klinieke behandel word, se immuunsisteme ernstig onderdruk was en dat hulle met stadium III of stadium IV van MIV/VIGS gediagnoseer was. Die resultate het verder ook die voorkoms van verskeie opportunistiese infeksies en MIV/VIGS geassosieerde toestande aangedui. n Positiewe bevinding was dat 76% van die kinders (n=153), wat met MIV/VIGS geinfekteer was, tydens die proses van data-insameling reeds Hoogsaktiewe Antiretrovirale Terapie (HAART) ontvang het. Die mees uitstaande bevinding was dat slegs n geringe hoeveelheid kinders met MIV/VIGS by die kliniek, as met n agterstand en/of afwyking in spraak, taal en/of gehoor, aangeteken is. Beperkte verwysings na ander professionele persone is ook in die kliniekrekords opgemerk. Verwysings was beperk tot Maatskaplike Werkers en Dietkundiges. Daar was slegs een aantekening van n kind wat vir behandeling na n Spraak- en Taalterapeut en Oudioloog verwys is. Dit is egter onduidelik of daar werklik meer verwysings na ander professionele persone gemaak is, maar net nie in die kinders se kliniekrekords aangedui is nie, of dat daar werklik min verwysings na ander professionele dissiplines gemaak is.

Bykomend, was die resultate van voltooide vraelyste deur mediese dokters, wat met die pediatriese MIV/VIGS populasie in die kliniek werk, insiggewend. Bevindings dui aan dat die meerderheid proefpersone, wat aan die studie deelgeneem het, van mening is dat kinders wat met MIV/VIGS besmet is wel n hor risiko toon vir ontwikkelings- en kommunikasie agterstande en/of afwykings in vergeleke met die algemene populasie. Die proefpersone is verder ook van mening dat hierdie populasie wel van spraak- en taalterapie en/of oudiologiese intervensie sal baatvind. Proefpersone het verder aangedui dat mediese dokters, wat met die pediatriese MIV/VIGS populasie werk, nie ten volle ingelig is omtrent die effek van MIV/VIGS op kommunikasie ontwikkeling en dat hulle van verdere opleiding sal baatvind.

Die behoefte vir verdere navorsing in die veld van pediatriese MIV/VIGS en kommunikasie ontwikkeling, binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, word in hierdie studie beskryf. Dit sal as riglyn vir VKI dienslewering aan hierdie populasie dien. Daar is ook n groot behoefte vir verdere opleiding van ander mediese professionele persone met betrekking tot pediatriese MIV/VIGS en die effek wat die op die kind se kommunikasie ontwikkeling het.

2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Hattam, M 2010, The characteristics of a group of young children infected with HIV/AIDS at a regional hospital in Gauteng, MCommunication Pathology dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07182011-124717/ >

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