Title page for ETD etd-06132011-095408


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Meiring, Thelma
Email thelma@idexxsa.co.za
URN etd-06132011-095408
Document Title The diagnosis and prevalence of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in feedlot cattle
Degree MMedVet
Department Paraclinical Sciences
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof L Prozesky Supervisor
Keywords
  • bees virus diarree
  • bovine viral diarrhoea
  • virus
  • feedlot
  • infeksie
  • voerkraal
Date 2011-04-08
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection is an important viral infection affecting the cattle industry today. The prevalence of this infection in South African feedlots is unknown.

Ear notch biopsies were collected from animals entering feedlots which appeared unthrifty, chronic poor doers, and animals entering the hospital pen with respiratory disease for the first time. One thousand and seventy four (1074) samples were collected from the first two categories and 616 samples from animals entering the hospital pen. Samples were processed with routine immunoperoxidase protocol. Serum samples were also collected when possible.

The first aim of this study was to determine the prevalence with the use of immunoperoxidase staining on ear notch biopsies. Overall 49 animals tested positive, 43 from the 1074 group and 6 from the 616 group. The prevalence of persistently infected cattle entering the feedlots was determined as 2.9%, which is higher than the rule of thumb that 0.5% of infected animals enter feedlots. Four percent were positive in the group of 1074 animals and one percent in those entering the hospital pen for the first time.

It was proposed by the author that persistently infected animals are at a greater risk to develop respiratory disease in the feedlot, but this was not supported by the data collected. There was thus no clear increase in respiratory disease in persistently infected animals.

The reliability of the immunoperoxidase stain as a diagnostic method to identify persistently infected animals was also evaluated. This diagnostic method proved to be reliable, but the pathologist needs to be aware of non-specific staining. During the course of the research it became apparent that in some cases mast cells in the dermis stain positive with both DAB and NovaRED stains. Positive staining in keratinocytes and hair follicle epithelium was not present and these cases were proven as negative for persistent infection. The specific cause of positive staining of mast cell granules remains unclear.

Only ten positive cases had serum samples on which ELISA tests for antigen and antibody were performed. All tests correlated well with the immunoperoxidase method except in four cases, where the animals were incorrectly diagnosed as positive due to the non-specific staining as described above. Immunoperoxidase staining on ear notch biopsies is thus a reliable diagnostic method to identify persistently infected animals with BVDV, but the pathologist must be aware of non-specific positive staining.

AFRIKAANS : Bees virus diarree infeksie is n belangrike virale infeksie wat die bees industrie van vandag beinvloed. Die prevalensie van die infeksie in Suid Afrikaanse voerkrale is onbekend.

Oorknip biopsies is geneem van verdagte diere met aankoms by die voerkraal, chroniese swak beeste en diere wat vir die eerste keer in die hospitaal kraal weens respiratoriese siekte opgeneem is. Een duised vier en sewentig (1074) monsters is van die eerste twee kategoriee geneem en 616 monsters van diere wat in die hospitaal kraal opgeneem is. Monsters is op roetiene wyse vir immunoperoksidase kleuring geprosesseer. Serum monsters is waar moontlik ook versamel.

Die eerste doel van die studie was om die prevalensie van permanente besmette draers te bepaal met behulp van immunoperoksidase kleuring op oorknip biopsies. Nege-en-veertig diere in totaal het positief getoets, 43 vanuit die eerste groep en 6 vanuit die tweede groep. Die prevalensie van permanente besmette draers wat in voerkrale opgeneem word is was 2.9% wat hor is as die verwagte 0.5% wat deur die literatuur aangedui word. Vier persent was positief in die 1074 groep en 1% in die groep wat vir die eerste keer in die hospitaal kraal opgeneem is.

Dit is deur die navorser voorgestel dat permanente besmette draers n groter risiko het om met respiratoriese siektes in die hospitaal kraal opgeneem te word, maar dit is nie deur die data bevestig nie. Daar was dus geen verhoging in die teenwoordigheid van respiratoriese siektes in geaffekteerde diere nie.

Die betroubaarheid van immunoperoksidase kleuring om permanente besmette diere met BVD te identifiseer is ook geevalueer. Die metode is betroubaar gevind, maar die patoloog moet bewus wees van nie-spesifieke kleuring. Gedurende die navorsing het dit aan die lig gekom dat mastselle in die dermis positief kleur met DAB en NovaRED kleuring. Positiewe kleuring was nie in die epidermis of haarfollikel epiteel teenwoordig nie en die die gevalle was negatief vir permanente besmetting. Die spesifieke rede vir positiewe kleuring in mastselle is steeds onduidelik.

Slegs 10 positiewe gevalle het serum monsters gehad vir ELISA teenliggaam en antigeen toetse. Die resultate het goed gekorrelleer met die immunoperoksidase kleuring, behalwe in 4 gevalle waar gevalle verkeerd as positief gediagnoseer is as gevolg van nie-spesifieke positiewe kleuring soos beskryf. Immunoperoksidase kleuring is dus n sensitiewe metode om permanente besmette draers met BVDV te identifiseer, mits die patoloog bewus is van nie-spesifieke kleuring wat mag voorkom.

2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Meiring, T 2010, The giagnosis and prevalence of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in feedlot cattle, MMedVet dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-06132011-095408/ >

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