Title page for ETD etd-05222012-171509


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Van Wyk, Susan
Email susan.vanwyk@up.ac.za
URN etd-05222012-171509
Document Title The effects of growth stimulants used at cattle feedlots, on reproductive health and thyroid function of Sprague-Dawley rats
Degree MSc
Department School of Health Systems and Public Health
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Dr N H Aneck-Hahn Co-Supervisor
Prof T C de Jager Supervisor
Keywords
  • β-trenbolone
  • diethylstilbestrol
  • methyltestosterone
  • veterinary growth stimulants
  • tiroÔdhormoon
  • anogenitale afstand
  • manlike voortplantingstelsel
  • methyltestosterone
  • veterinÍre-groei-stimulant
  • estrogeen
  • YES
  • estrogen
  • T47D-KBluc
  • zilpaterol
  • β-trenbolone diethylstilbestrol
  • α-zearalanol
  • thyroid function
  • male fertility
  • anogenital distance
Date 2012-04-13
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Reports of endocrine disrupting potential of common environmental chemicals and the effects on reproductive health are well documented in literature. It has been suggested that deteriorating male reproductive health could be due to in utero exposures to these chemicals. The effects mediated through endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are on the fetus and may therefore be trans-generational. Ultimately, these chemicals land up in aquatic systems and affect wildlife and humans. Humans are exposed to these chemicals through multiple routes including atmosphere, water, occupational, domestic and food consumption.

South Africa (SA) is an important livestock producer with about 13.8 million cattle within the feedlot industry contributing up to 80% of the total beef production. Veterinary growth stimulants (VGS) are used by beef producers to enhance growth in cattle. In SA, the following five VGS have been approved for use in beef products under the Register Act 36 of 1947, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone (natural), α'-zearalanol and trenbolone (synthetic). These VGS and their metabolites are environmentally stable compounds. The excretions from the animals are not treated and land up in the local aquatic systems, indirectly posing a health risk. In SA no research has been done on VGS associated with feedlot activities.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of VGS, as possible EDCs on the reproductive health and thyroid function in male rats in utero, during lactation and life-time exposure.

The (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activity in water from specific feedlots was determined by using a battery of screening bio-assays. Water samples were collected over a period of a year and assessed for EDC activity in the recombinant yeast screen (YES), the T47D-KBluc (estrogenic) and the MDA-Kb2 (androgenic) bioassays. The OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) 415 protocol, (1983) for a one-generation reproduction toxicity study, was modified to accommodate one control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were orally gavaged with mixtures of: zilpaterol, diethylstilbestrol (DES) and α-zearalanol (Group 2; estogenic); with β'-trenbolone and methyltestosterone (MT) (Group 3; androgenic); a combination of compounds (Group 4; estrogenic and androgenic) and the Control group received cottonseed oil only.

The bio-assay results indicated that water samples analysed from selected feedlots contained compounds with estrogenic activity.

The shorter anogenital distance (AGD) (Group 3), decreased seminal vesicle mass (Group 4), decreased prostate mass (Group 4), increased lumen diameter (Group 3 and 4), lowered sperm concentration (Group 3), and increased T4 (Group 2 and 3) differed significantly from the control. The body weight of the males in Group 2 in the F2 generation was significantly lower than the control. The F2 females in Group 2, 3 and 4 were also significantly lower than the control.

The reduced AGD, decreased seminal vesicle and increased T4 (thyroxine) might be the result of an estrogenic effect. The reduced sperm concentration might be the result of in utero and lactation exposure to these VGS.

The bio-assays confirmed estrogenic activity in the feedlot water sources. The reproductive toxicology study findings confirm the hypothesis that VGS can act as EDCs and could therefore be responsible for negative reproductive effects and thyroid function. More research is needed to investigate the effects of VGS mixtures at different concentrations on male reproductive health, thyroid function and their offspring.

AFRIKAANS : Goed gedokumenteerde literatuur dui aan dat chemikalieŽ wat algemeen in die omgewing gevind word, die potensiaal het om die manlike voortplantingstelsel aan te tas. Dit word gespekuleer dat in utero blootstelling verantwoordelik kan wees vir hierdie agteruitgang. Die fetus en daarop- volgende geslagte se gesondheid kan ook beŌnvloed word deur chemikalieŽ. Hierdie chemikalieŽ het die potensiaal om die watersisteme te bereik en gevolglik dier en menslike gesondheid te beŌnvloed. Blootstelling kan plaasvind deur verskeie roetes wat die atmosfeer, water, werksomstandighede, huishoudelike produkte en gekontamineerde voedsel insluit. Suid-Afrika (SA) is 'n belangrike produsent van vleisprodukte met omtrent 13.8 miljoen beeste wat bydra tot 80% van die vleisproduksie. VeterinÍre-groei-stimulante (VGS) word gebruik om die vleisproduksie te verbeter. Vyf groei stimulante naamlik estradiol, progesteroon, testosteroon (natuurlike), α-zearalanol en trenboloon (sinteties) is goedgekeur onder die Wet 36 van 1947, vir groei produksie van beeste. Hierdie VGS en hul metaboliete is stabiel in die natuur. Die fekale en urinere uitskeidingsprodukte van die diere word nie behandel nie en eindig op in ons waterstelsels. Geen navorsing is nog in SA gedoen om die potensiŽle bydraes wat voerkrale tot die besoedeling van water lewer, te bestudeer nie.

Die doel van die studie was om die gesamentlike effekte van mengsels VGS as moontlike endokrien-ontwrigtende chemicalieŽ (EOC) op die manlike voortplantingstelsel en tiroÔdhormone van mannetjiesrotte na in utero-, gedurende laktasie- en na 'n leeftyd-blootstelling te bepaal.

Die (anti)estrogeniese en (anti)androgeniese aktiwiteit in water vanaf spesifieke voerkrale is met behulp van 'n reeks biologiese seltoetse bepaal. Watermonsters is geanaliseer met die gisseltoets (YES)(estrogenies), die T47D-KBluc (estrogenies) en die MDA-Kb2 (androgenies). Die OECD 415 protokol (1983) vir een generasie reproduktiewe toksologie toets was aangepas om een kontrole en drie eksperimentele groepe te huisves. Die eksperimentele groepe rotte is oraal gedoseer met 'n mengsel van zilpaterol, dietielstilbestrol (DES) en α-zearalanol (Groep 2); β-trenboloon en metieltestosteroon (Groep 3); 'n kombinasie van al bogenoemde (Groep 4); en 'n kontrole groep wat katoensaad olie VGS ontvang het nie.

Estrogeniese aktiwiteit en sitotoksisiteit was teenwoordig in die water vanaf die voerkrale. Die verkorte anogenitale afstand (AGD) (Groep 3), kleiner seminale vesikel (SV) massa (Groep 4), kleiner prostaat massa (Groep 4), groter lumen deursneŽ (Groep 3 en 4), laer spermtelling (Groep 3), verhoogde T4 (Groep 2 en 3), het almal statisties-betekenisvol van die kontrole groep verskil. In die F2 generasie het die liggaamsmassas van die mannetjies in Groep 2 en liggaamsmassas van die wyfies in Groepe 2, 3 , 4, almal statisties-betekenisvol laer as die kontrole Groep.

Die verkorte AGD, kleiner SV en verhoogde T4 kan moonlik wees as gevolg van 'n estrogeniese effek en die verlaagde sperm konsentrasie weens 'n in utero en laktasie blootstelling.

Die biologiese seltoetse het die teenwoordigheid van estrogeniese aktiwiteit in voerkrale se water bevestig. Die gevolge van die blootstelling van EOC mengsels op voortplantings-parameters bevestig die moontlikheid van EOC effek geassosieer met VGS. Verdere navorsing is nodig om die dosisresponsverhoudings van verskillende VGS te ondersoek.

Copyright © 2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria

Please cite as follows:

Van Wyk, S 2011, The effects of growth stimulants used at cattle feedlots, on reproductive health and thyroid function of Sprague-Dawley rats, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-05222012-171509 / >

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