Title page for ETD etd-05202011-091049

Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Ngololo, Elizabeth Ndeukumwa
Email ndeukumwa@gmail.com
URN etd-05202011-091049
Document Title An evaluation of the implementation of ICT policy for education in rural Namibian schools
Degree PhD
Department Science, Mathematics and Technology Education
Advisor Name Title
Prof T Plomp Co-Supervisor
Prof S J Howie Supervisor
  • infrastructure
  • digital learning materials
  • expertise
  • pedagogical use of ICT
  • rural schools
  • national policy
  • Information Communication Technology
  • ICT
  • evaluation
  • Namibia
  • developing countries
Date 2011-04-12
Availability unrestricted
Many governments across the world have invested a lot of resources in information and communication technology (ICT) development with an aim to enhance teaching and learning using technology in schools. New educational ICT policy issues emerged and new patterns of ICT related practices are observable in education. This initiative has necessitated the development of National ICT Policies that will guide the implementation process in schools. Namibia has adopted the National ICT policy for Education in 2005 and the National ICT Policy Implementation Plan in 2006. Since the adoption no study was done to evaluate the implementation process, especially in rural schools where the teaching has been proven difficult. This study evaluates the implementation of the National ICT Policy for Education in Namibian rural junior secondary schools, especially in science classrooms.

The thesis is a mixed methods study, undertaking survey and case studies. The study was conducted in the three educational regions, namely, Ohangwena; Oshana; and Oshikoto in Northern Namibia were 163 schools were sampled. The purpose of the study was to describe how ICT is being implemented in science classrooms and also explore factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools.

The study’s findings indicate that the rural schools in Namibia are in the initial phase of ICT implementation. ICT use and pedagogical use is low due to lack of professional development courses, pedagogical support and lack of ICT related resources. However, the few schools with high pedagogical use of ICT have shown an entrepreneurial leadership style and vision of the science teachers. The relational analysis suggests three main predictors of ICT implementation in rural schools. These findings were confirmed through case studies of successful schools. In addition, the findings were legitimised by the participants of the ICT use conference.

The Kennisnet model (2009) was adopted and adapted as a conceptual framework for this study. The Howie model (2002) provided the frame within which the structure of input, process and outcome could be identified. The data was consistent with the adapted Kennisnet model (2009) and added five more constructs namely, entrepreneurial leadership, science curriculum goals, entrepreneurial science teachers’ vision, general use of ICT. The general use of ICT and attitudes of the science teachers influences the pedagogical use of ICT as added to the Howie model (2002).

The results of this research suggest ways to improve the pedagogical use of ICT in rural schools; enable policymakers to make informed decision about resource allocation to the rural schools; and on teacher professional development in order to improve the current rural situation regarding ICT use.

© 2010 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Ngololo, EN 2010, An evaluation of the implementation of ICT policy for education in rural Namibian schools, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-05202011-091049/ >


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  00front.pdf 109.71 Kb 00:00:30 00:00:15 00:00:13 00:00:06 < 00:00:01
  01chapter1.pdf 139.78 Kb 00:00:38 00:00:19 00:00:17 00:00:08 < 00:00:01
  02chapter2.pdf 608.61 Kb 00:02:49 00:01:26 00:01:16 00:00:38 00:00:03
  03chapter3.pdf 391.64 Kb 00:01:48 00:00:55 00:00:48 00:00:24 00:00:02
  04chapter4.pdf 210.56 Kb 00:00:58 00:00:30 00:00:26 00:00:13 00:00:01
  05chapter5.pdf 544.04 Kb 00:02:31 00:01:17 00:01:08 00:00:34 00:00:02
  06chapter6.pdf 705.17 Kb 00:03:15 00:01:40 00:01:28 00:00:44 00:00:03
  07chapters7-8.pdf 440.76 Kb 00:02:02 00:01:02 00:00:55 00:00:27 00:00:02
  08references.pdf 141.06 Kb 00:00:39 00:00:20 00:00:17 00:00:08 < 00:00:01
  09appendices.pdf 1.31 Mb 00:06:03 00:03:06 00:02:43 00:01:21 00:00:06

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