Title page for ETD etd-05162010-010327


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Smith, Anna Magrietha
Email mariki.smith@telkomsa.net
URN etd-05162010-010327
Document Title Emosionele en spirituele intelligensie in huweliksaanpassing : jong volwassenes met voorskoolse kinders (Afrikaans)
Degree PhD
Department Psychology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof D Maree Co-Supervisor
Prof M Visser Supervisor
Keywords
  • spirituele intelligensie
  • huweliksaanpassing
  • spiritual intelligence
  • marriage with preschool children
  • development of a questionnaire
  • values
  • emotional intelligence
  • quantitative and qualitative research
  • kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe navorsing
  • purpose and meaning
  • marital adjustment
  • huweliksrolle
  • sin en betekenis
  • huwelik met voorskoolse kinders
  • marital roles
  • logotherapy
  • logoterapie
  • waardes
  • ontwikkeling van Ďn vraelys
  • emosionele intelligensie
Date 2010-04-22
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: In hierdie navorsing is die huwelik met voorskoolse kinders in Suid-Afrika aan die begin van die een-en-twintigste eeu ondersoek. Hierdie huweliksfase, met sy vele uitdagings en huwelikstake, word beskou as die fase met die laagste huweliksaanpassing en die hoogste voorkoms van egskeiding. Die sin en betekenis van hierdie uitdagings (spirituele intelligensie of SQ), sowel as die emosionele belewenis, verstaan en hantering hiervan (emosionele intelligensie of EQ), asook die rol wat dit in huweliksaanpassing speel, is ondersoek.

Eerstens is ín vraelys ontwikkel wat SQ-eienskappe kan meet (MMV-SQ-vraelys), naamlik: (i) die vind van sin en betekenis in ín gegewe situasie, (ii) motiveringsbronne van gedrag, en (iii) die waardes wat uitgeleef word. Data van 198 respondente het gedui op betroubaarheid van subskale wat wissel van 0.47 tot 0.80. Bevredigende konstrukgeldigheid is verkry deur die verhouding tussen die subskale van die SQ-vraelys en waardeskaal te ondersoek (r het gevarieer van 0.15; p ≤ 0.05 tot 0.54; p ≤ 0.01).

Sowel kwantitatiewe as kwalitatiewe navorsing is vervolgens gebruik. In die kwantitatiewe navorsing is die MMV-SQ-vraelys, die huweliks-aanpassingsvraelys van Spanier (Dyadic Adjustment Scale), asook die SSRI (Schutte Self-Report Inventory) op 84 deelnemers toegepas. Die deelnemers het 84 getroude persone, waaronder 34 egpare ingesluit.

Die verband tussen huweliksaanpassing en EQ is ondersoek deur korrelasies te bereken tussen die subskale van die DAS en SSRI. Dit het geblyk dat ʼn optimistiese gemoedstemming ʼn verband toon met al die subskale van huweliksaanpassing. Die herkenning van die eie en die huweliksmaat se gevoelens, sosiale vaardighede, en die toepassing van emosies blyk verband te hou met hoŽr huwelikstevredenheid asook huwelikskonsensus. Sosiale vaardighede het ook ʼn verband getoon met affeksionele uitdrukking. EQ het egter nie ín sterk verband met huwelikskohesie getoon nie.

Die verband tussen die subskale van die DAS is vervolgens vergelyk met diť van die MMV-SQ-vraelys. Betekenisvolle korrelasies tussen enkele skale van huweliksaanpassing en SQ het voorgekom, veral wat die motiveringskaal betref: egpaarlede wie se gedrag deur die motiveringsbron bemeestering gemotiveer word, blyk ʼn hoŽr mate van huweliksaanpassing te hÍ, terwyl die negatiewe motiveringsbronne, waaronder selfgesentreerdheid, drange en vrees, ín negatiewe verband met huweliksaanpassing toon. Min verbande is egter gevind tussen huweliksaanpassing, en sin en betekenis (wel tussen meditatiewe bewustheid en huwelikskonsensus, asook tussen empatiese aanvaarding en openheid, en affeksionele ekspressie). Geen verbande is ten opsigte van waardes gevind nie.

Verskille tussen mans en vroue se EQ en SQ is ook ondersoek, maar geen groot verskille is verkry nie. Deur ín meervoudige regressie is enkele verdere biografiese veranderlikes geÔdentifiseer wat ʼn verband met huweliksaanpassing toon.

In die kwalitatiewe navorsing is verskeie aspekte ondersoek en bespreek: die rolverdeling ten opsigte van kinderopvoeding en huistake, die balans tussen beroep en gesin, persoonlike tevredenheid (SQ) in die huwelik, asook die begrip en hantering van gevoelens (EQ).

Die waarde van hierdie navorsing lÍ veral in die grondleggingswerk van die SQ-vraelys, asook bruikbare inligting ten opsigte van die huwelik met voorskoolse kinders in Suid-Afrika. Leiding aan egpare in die hantering van gevoelens (EQ), asook insig in hulle motiveringsbronne (SQ) behoort dus hulle huweliksaanpassing te verhoog.

ENGLISH: In this research, the South-African marriage with preschool children was investigated. This phase of marriage, full of challenges and marital tasks, is regarded showing the lowest degree of marital adjustment and the highest incidence of divorce. The meaning, (spiritual intelligence or SQ), emotional experience, understanding and dealing with these challenges (emotional intelligence or EQ), as well as the relation to marital adjustment, were investigated.

Firstly, a questionnaire was developed that could measure the characteristics of SQ, namely: (i) finding purpose and meaning in a given situation, (ii) motivations of behaviour, and (iii) values. Data from 198 respondents indicated the reliability of the subscales, which vary from 0.47 to 0.80. Satisfactory construct validity was obtained by researching the relation between the subscales of the SQ questionnaire and the value scale (r varied from 0.15; p ≤ 0.05 to 0.54; p ≤ 0.01).

Next, both qualitative and quantitative research were utilised. In the quantitative research, the MMV SQ questionnaire, the marital adjustment questionnaire of Spanier (Dyadic Adjustment Scale), as well as the SSRI (Schutte Self-Report Inventory) were completed by the respondents. The respondents were 84 married individuals, including 34 couples.

The relationship between marital adjustment and EQ was investigated by calculating correlations between the subscales of the DAS and SSRI. It transpired that an optimistic frame of mind showed a correlation with all the subscales of marital adjustment. It also appeared that the recognition of the own and the spouseís feelings, social skills, and the application of emotions were related to increased marital satisfaction as well as marital consensus. Social skills also displayed a correlation with affectional expression. EQ, however, did not show a strong correlation with marital cohesion.

Next, the relation between the subscales of the DAS was compared to that of the MMV-SQ questionnaire. Meaningful correlations between some scales of marital adjustment and SQ occurred, in particular with regard to the motivational scale: couples whose behaviour are motivated by mastering, appear to display a higher degree of marital adjustment, while the negative sources of motivation like self-centredness, craving and fears, display a negative correlation with marital adjustment. Few correlations were found between marital adjustment and purpose and meaning (between meditative awareness and marital consensus; between empathetic acceptance and openness, and affectional expression). No correlation was found with regard to values.

Differences between the EQ and SQ of men and women were also investigated, but no major differences were observed. By means of multiple regressions it was indicated that some biographic variables did show a correlation with marital adjustment.

Valuable information was obtained in the qualitative research regarding the coupleís roles in child-raising and domestic chores, the balance between career and family, personal satisfaction (SQ) in the marriage, as well as the understanding and handling of feelings (EQ).

The value of this research lies in the foundational work of the SQ questionnaire in particular, as well as useful information with regard to South African marriages with preschool children. Guiding couples in their dealing with feelings (EQ), as well as providing an insight into the sources of motivation (SQ), should therefore enhance their marital adjustment.

© 2009 Author

Please cite as follows:

Smith, AM 2009, Emosionele en spirituele intelligensie in huweliksaanpassing : jong volwassenes met voorskoolse kinders, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-05162010-010327/ >

D10/313/ag

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