Document Type Doctoral Thesis Author Bagla, Victor Patrick firstname.lastname@example.org URN etd-05082012-101645 Document Title Isolation and characterization of compounds from Podocarpus henkelii (Podocarpaceae) with activity against bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens Degree PhD Department Paraclinical Sciences Supervisor
Advisor Name Title Dr L J McGaw Co-Supervisor Prof J N Eloff Supervisor Keywords
- viral pathogens
- Podocarpus henkelii
- intermediate polarity extracts
- bacteria and fungal pathogens
Date 2012-04-13 Availability unrestricted AbstractDiseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses pose a significant threat especially to poor rural communities. Viral infections are frequently complicated by secondary bacterial and fungal infections which remain a major challenge globally and in particular, in sub Sahara Africa amongst humans and animals alike. The main aim of this study was to develop a low toxicity plant extract or isolated compound active against viral, bacteria and fungal pathogens from selected plant species.
Seven tree species that were investigated were Acokanthera schimperi, Carissa edulis, Ekebergia capensis, Podocarpus henkellii, Plumbago zeylanica, Annona senegalensis and Schrebera alata traditionally used in the treatments of various ailments were selected and extracted using solvents of varying polarity. Extracts of selected plants were tested for activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacterial namely Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram-negative species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli respectively, three fungal pathogens: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigates and four enveloped animal viruses: feline herpes virus–1 (FHV-1, dsDNA), canine distemper virus (CDV, ssRNA), canine parainfluenza virus-2 (CPIV-2, ssRNA) and lumpy skin disease virus strain V248/93 (LSDV, dsDNA). The presence of antioxidant constituents in the different extracts and cytotoxicity against three cell types CRFK, bovine dermis and Vero cells were determined. Bioautography and the serial microplate dilution methods were used to determine the number of antimicrobial compounds and antimicrobial activity of extracts against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Virucidal and attachments assays were used to determine the activity against viral pathogens. Qualitative antioxidant activities of extracts were tested using the DPPH reagent and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay.
Biological activity was observed in all the extracts against one or more organisms on bioautography. The intermediately polar system (CEF) separated more active constituents. Some extracts had compounds with similar Rf values active against one or more organisms. In both the antibacterial and antifungal assays, acetone extracts had the highest activity followed by DCM against one or more pathogens. Hexanes extracts were the least active. P. henkellii extracts had more active compounds against the bacteria and Annona senegalensisagainst the fungi. In the micro-dilution assay, S. aureus was the most susceptible bacterial organism to extracts of the different plant, followed by P. aeruginosa andEscherichia coli, and E. faecalis the least. C. neoformans on the other hand was the most susceptible fungal pathogen. In the antiviral assay, although activity was observed with hexane extracts of some plants in the virucidal assay, the most potent inhibition was observed with the acetone and methanol extracts of Podocarpus henkelii against CDV and LSDV in the virucidal assay and acetone extracts in the attachment assay.
In general the hexane was the least toxic while the intermediate polarity extracts were generally the most toxic indicating that highly polar compounds were possibly poorly or highly absorbed through membranes in the former and later respectively. Of the three cell types used CRFK was the most sensitive followed by bovine dermis and Vero cells the least. Cytotoxicity studies of extracts of the different plants revealed A. senegalensis and A. schimperi extracts were the most toxic plants in the cellular assay. These plants are toxic to animals and the cytoxicity is in line with the in vivo toxicity. The protective effects of antioxidant constituents in some extracts varied and appear to be influenced by the metabolism of the type of cell in culture. It also appears to suggest that metabolism in kidney derived cells can be influenced by species variation in the origin of cells.
P. henkellii was selected for isolation of bioactive compound. Three compounds were isolated and their structure elucidated using 13C and 1H NMR and mass spectrometric data. The antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of the isolated compounds 7’, 4’, 7’’, 4’’’, tetramethoxy amentoflavone (C1), isoginkgetin (C2) and Podocarpusflavone–A (C3) were determined. Compound C2 was the most active against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC = 60 ìg/mE) and a selectivity index (SI) value of 16.67. The compound was also active against A. fumigatus and C. neoformans (SI = 33.33) suggesting both antibacterial and antifungal activity with relative safety. Compound C3 had a broad spectrum of activity against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa with SI values of 4. A less potent activity of the compounds was obtained in both the virucidal and attachment assays against test pathogens, indicating the lower activity of the compounds against tested viral pathogens. The studies further suggest structural activity relationship in the antimicrobial activity of biflavonoids. The compounds C1 and C2 had no toxic effect on the three cell types and mutagenicity studies indicated no activity of these compounds.
Podocarpusflavone-A occurs in every species of Podocarpus so far investigated, except P. latifolius. These studies represent the first isolation of bioactive compounds from P. henkellii. Although a different extractant was used than that used by traditional healers, the presence of antiviral compounds in Podocarpus henkelii against two unrelated viruses may justify on a chemotaxonomic basis the traditional use of related species Podocarpus latifoliusand Podocarpus falcatus in the traditional treatment of canine distemper infection in dogs.
© 2011 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.
Please cite as follows:
Bagla VP 2011, Isolation and characterization of compounds from Podocarpus henkelii (Podocarpaceae) with activity against bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-05082012-101645/ >
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