Title page for ETD etd-04082009-171225

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Opperman, Tjaart Adriaan Kruger
URN etd-04082009-171225
Document Title A 5 GHz BiCMOS I/Q VCO with 360 variable phase outputs using the vector sum method
Degree MEng
Department Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
Advisor Name Title
Dr S Sinha Supervisor
  • vector sum method
  • variable gain amplifier
  • VGA
  • inductor capacitor
  • phase noise
  • VCO
  • silicon germanium
  • SiGe
  • LC
  • digital-to-analogue converter
  • integrated circuit
  • IC
  • RF
  • radio frequency
  • local oscillator
  • Gilbert mixer
  • BiCMOS
  • Bipolar CMOS
  • voltage controlled oscillator
  • phase shifter
  • phased array antenna
  • LO
  • DAC
Date 2009-04-17
Availability unrestricted
This research looks into the design of an integrated in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) VCO operating at 5 GHz. The goal is to design a phase shifter that is implemented at the LO used for RF up conversion. The target application for the phase shifter is towards phased array antennas operating at 5 GHz. Instead of designing multiple VCOs that each deliver a variety of phases, two identical LC-VCOs are coupled together to oscillate at the same frequency and deliver four outputs that are 90 out of phase. By varying the amplitudes of the in-phase and quadrature signals independently using VGAs before adding them together, a resultant out-of-phase signal is obtained. A number of independently variable out-of-phase signals can be obtained from these 90 out-of-phase signals and this technique is better known as the vector sum method of phase shifting. Control signals to the inputs of the VGAs required to obtain 22.5 phase shifts were designed from simulations and are generated using 16-bit DACs.

The design is implemented and manufactured using a 0.35 m SiGe BiCMOS process and the complete prototype IC occupies an area of 2.65 2.65 mm2. The I/Q VCO with 360 variable phase outputs occupies 1.10 0.85 mm2 of chip area and the 16-bit DAC along with its decoding circuitry occupies 0.41 0.13 mm2 of chip area.

The manufactured quadrature VCO was found to oscillate between 4.12 ~ 4.74 GHz and consumes 23.1 mW from a 3.3 V supply without its buffer circuitry. A maximum phase noise of -78.5 dBc / Hz at a 100 kHz offset and -108.17 dBc / Hz at a 1 MHz offset was measured and the minimum VCO figure of merit is 157.8 dBc / Hz. The output voltages of the 16 bit DAC are within 3.5 % of the design specifications. When the phase shifter is controlled by the 16 DAC signals, the maximum measured phase error of the phase shifter is lower than 10 %.

University of Pretoria 2009


  Filename       Size       Approximate Download Time (Hours:Minutes:Seconds) 
 28.8 Modem   56K Modem   ISDN (64 Kb)   ISDN (128 Kb)   Higher-speed Access 
  00dissertation.pdf 4.38 Mb 00:20:16 00:10:25 00:09:07 00:04:33 00:00:23
  01appendixA.pdf 5.39 Mb 00:24:58 00:12:50 00:11:14 00:05:37 00:00:28
  02appendixB.pdf 4.25 Mb 00:19:40 00:10:07 00:08:51 00:04:25 00:00:22

Browse All Available ETDs by ( Author | Department )

If you have more questions or technical problems, please Contact UPeTD.