Title page for ETD etd-03292010-113319


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Venter, Dawid Johan
Email dawid.venter@hotmail.com
URN etd-03292010-113319
Document Title Die aristokraat-virtuoos in die moderniteit : die ontwikkeling van die Franse Fluitskool in die laat negentiende eeu (Afrikaans)
Degree MMus
Department Music
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof J de C Hinch Supervisor
Keywords
  • romantiek
  • impressionisme
  • Société Nationale de Musique Française
  • Franse Fluitskool
  • professionele virtuoos
  • Les Six
  • French Flute school
  • impressionism
  • dandyism
  • modenity
  • romanticism
  • modernism
  • professional virtuoso
  • Böhm-ringklepfluit
  • aristocratic
  • Böhm flute
  • aristokraat-virtuoos
  • la flûte perfectionnée
  • dandyisme
  • moderniteit
  • modernisme
Date 2009-04-29
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

During the early 19th century, the flautist became known as a frivolous “dandy” figure whose extravagant appearance suited his light and virtuoso playing. He becomes a so-called professional virtuoso, generating his own income in the absence of aristocratic patronage while entertaining the rising bourgeois public, who demands light yet virtuoso performances.

Many artists are disillusioned in this sphere where the arts seem to be reduced to something that is merely utile to the public – a form of entertainment; a social tool. The greatest concern of writers and poets is that the universal truth of their modern reality will not be expressed in art. It becomes the quest of these seemingly disempowered intellectuals to fight this tendency and to express the existential anguish, uncertainty and ennui of the modern materialist society through their art.

It is against this background that the concept of the flautist as “aristocratic virtuoso” is developed. This idea opposes the concept of the “professional virtuoso” of the early 19th century. In this society where artists have to find their voice without the support of the aristocratic classes, 19th century disillusioned poet Charles Baudelaire develops the concept of a symbolic cultural aristocracy, wherein the artist is a privileged outsider “on the inside”; a spectator who takes up all of everyday existence, and transforms it into a profound poetic reality. It is with this theory in mind that I develop my thesis of the flautist as aristocratic virtuoso – a figure who captures the universal beauty of his time through his music and shares it with his audience.

This dissertation is, therefore, a study of the events that brought about this re-definition of the role of the flautist in the 19th century. It explores the contribution of prominent composers, the impact of the Société Nationale de Musique Française and the French Flute School, as well as the development of the instrument.

AFRIKAANS : Gedurende die vroeë 19de eeu onderskei die fluitis hom as ‘n byna windmakerige “dandy” figuur; sy fisieke voorkoms passend by sy ligte, dartelende tog uiters virtuose spel. Hierdie vroeë 19de eeuse fluitis staan bekend as die professionele virtuoos, omdat kunstenaars nie meer die beskermheerskap van die aristokrasie geniet nie, en vir hulle bestaan afhanklik word van die bourgeois publiek wat indrukwekkende, dog verteerbare vermaak van musici vereis. Verskeie kunstenaars voel vervreem in hierdie sfeer waarbinne die kunste gereduseer word tot iets wat “van nut” is vir die publiek. Die grootste kommer van skrywers en digters is dat dit wat van universele waarde in die realiteit van hulle epog is, nie tot uitdrukking kom in die kunste nie. Skrywers en intellektuele voel hulleself ontmagtig en dit word hulle doel om teen hierdie tendens te stry en deur hulle kuns die eksistensiële angs, onsekerheid en leegheid van die moderne materiële bestel uit te beeld.

Dit is in hierdie denkraamwerk dat die konsep van die fluitis as “aristokraat virtuoos” sy oorsprong het. Hierdie idee staan vanselfsprekend in teenstelling met die “professionele virtuoos” van die vroeë 19de eeu. In ʼn samelewing waar die kunste sonder die reële gegewe van die aristokratiese beskerming en bevordering ʼn medium moet vind waarbinne hulle eie moderniteit uitgedruk kan word, ontwikkel die 19de eeuse ontnugterde digter Charles Baudelaire die konsep van ʼn nuutgevonde simboliese “kulturele” aristokrasie. Hy ontwikkel ʼn interessante dualiteit rondom die kunstenaar wat as bevoorregte objektiewe buitestaander ten nouste betrokke is by die samelewing en wat daarvoor verantwoordelik is om die tydelike met die ewige te verbind deur sy/haar kuns. Dis vanuit hierdie idee dat ek ʼn saak maak vir die fluitis as aristokraat virtuoos – as figuur wat binne die medium van musiek die skoonheid van sy tyd vasvang en met sy gehore deel.

My studie is dus ‘n ondersoek rondom die gebeurtenisse wat hierdie hervorming in die 19de eeu meebring. Ek bestudeer komponiste wat ‘n belangrike bydrae lewer tot die fluitrepertorium, en ondersoek die stigting van die Société Nationale de Musique Française en die Franse Fluitskool, en die ontwikkeling van die instrument self.

Copyright © 2008, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Venter, DJ 2008, Die aristokraat-virtuoos in die moderniteit : die ontwikkeling van die Franse Fluitskool in die laat negentiende eeu (Afrikaans), MMus dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03292010-113319/ >

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