Title page for ETD etd-03232006-162458


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Ludike, Johann Lodewyk
URN etd-03232006-162458
Document Title Die opbou van die Afrika Onafhanklike Kerke deur die opleiding van leraars en profete (Afrikaans)
Degree DD (Science of Religion and Missiology)
Department Science of Religion and Missiology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof P J Van der Merwe Committee Chair
Keywords
  • theological education South Africa
  • healing religious aspects.
  • independent churches South Africa
Date 2001-04-31
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: Die waardering van die Afrika-onafhanklike kerke het gedurende die twintigste eeu grootliks verander, vanaf negatief tot positief. Die meer positiewe waardering hang saam met 'n ruimer en meer akkommoderende ekklesiologiese beeld waartoe gedurende die afgelope nagenoeg veertig jaar in die Sendingwetenskap gekom is.

Teologiese opleiding as 'n ondememing onder die AOK het in die verlede gemengde sukses behaal. Westerse kerke het geneig om hulle eie model na die AOK oor te plant. Daar was min bereidheid om in terme van inheemse behoeftes en strukturele tradisies te dink. Aan die kant van die AOK was daar weer agterdog oor die motiewe van Westerse kerke en is sodanige opleidings relatief swak ondersteun. Vanuit Bybelse en historiese gegewens wil hierdie proefskrif 'n meer geloofwaardige opleidingsbenadering aanbied wat ook kerkopbou in die hand sal werk.

Heling speel 'n sleutelrol in feitlik al die AOK en skakel met die sogenaamde profeetamp, 'n unieke funksie of bediening in die AOK.

Die proefskrif stel 'n geÔntegreerde of ekumeniese-genesingsopleidingsmodel voor om die AOK se profete in teologiese opleiding te betrek. Dit kom daarop neer dat integrasie bewerk moet word tussen tradisionele benadering, Westerse medies-biologiese metodes, sowel as Bybelse pastorale bedieningsmetodes. Daar moet vir 'n kragontmoetende benadering en vertrekpunt ruimte gemaak word, maar dit moet verder begelei word na 'n waarheidsontmoeting met die groot Waarheid wat 'n persoonlike ontmoeting is.

By die leraars word 'n multidimensionele ekumeniese kerkopboumodel voorgestel wat kerugma, koinonia en diakonia sinkronies en diakronies benut.

Aanduidings in die praktyk (aan die hand van diakonia en koinonia as assesseringskriteria) was dat derglike opleiding 'n transformasieproses begin het wat tot groter balans kan lei. Van die profete wat oorspronklik bloot diakonies te werk gegaan het, het tot 'n verchristelikte ubuntu of koinonia beweeg. Die leraars is weer kruisbestuif deur meer koinoniale insigte wat onder andere uitmond in diakoniese uitkomste.

Ook die Westerse kerke of sendende kerke moet tot groter balans in eie denke en benadering kom. Eensydige beklemtonings, soos op die kerugma, kerkplanting, persoonlike vroomheid of geloofservarings of aan die ander kant op diakonia, moet plek maak vir 'n meer gebalanseerde en holistiese benadering. Sommige opleidingsinstitute is goeie evangelisasiekatalisators maar, gaan gebrek om aan ware klinies-pastorale insigte. Eksegeties-hermeneutiese insigte word seIde kontekstualiserend gekommunikeer. Materiaal is dikwels nog eensydig sinkronies of diakronies en kultuurontkennend.

Indien die Westerse opleiding enigsins relevant wil wees, sal hulle meer van koinonia moet maak as die verlore dimensie in Westerse kerklike lewe, maar 'n lewende werklikheid in die AOK. Sonder die element van koinonia wat kontekstualisering verseker en die dualismes van teorie en praktyk, ekstraksie en abstraksie deurbreek, sal die Westerse instansies irrelevant in teologiese opleiding van die AOK bly.

Aan die ander kant sal die Westerse instansies moet waak teen 'n ooroptimistiese siening van die AOK en byvoorbeeld redeneer dat alle kerke op een of ander manier sinkretisties is en dat die AOK toegelaat moet word om hulle eie gang te gaan. Dit is nie alleen histories onrealisties nie, maar ontken ook die onderlinge verbondenheid en verantwoordelikheid van die een, heilige, algemene en Christelike kerk.

ENGLISH: Appraisal of the African indigenous/independent/initiated churches (AIC's) changed quite markedly during the twentieth century: from negative (at the beginning of the century) to positive (at the end thereof). The more positive judgement followed a change during the past forty years of Missiological understanding of the essence and role of church.

Theological training during the past fifty years of the leaders of the AIC's had mixed success. Western churches tended to transplant their own model to the AlC's and did not really try to accommodate indigenous needs or structural traditions. On the other hand the AlC's tended to be suspicious of the motives of Western churches. Therefore they tried to be self-sufficient in training.

This dissertation aimed to develop a more credible and viable approach in such training from Biblical and historical perspectives. Another aim was to make such training subservient of the ideal of developing of the AIC's as church.

Healing plays a key role in the AlC's with the so-called prophetical office as a unique function and ministry.

The dissertation proposes an integrated or ecumenical healing model to address the training needs of the prophets. The model aims to integrate Western medical-biological methods, traditional African healing and Biblical-ministerial principles. A ministry of confronting the powers (as accepted in many AlC's) must be transformed toward meeting the Truth and focused toward building a personal relationship between the ill member and his/her Saviour linked with the koinonia of the faith community.

In the case of the ministers a multidimensional, ecumenical church development model is proposed which aims to realise kerygma, koinonia and diaconia in a synchronical and dia¨chronical manner.

Preliminary indications from such training (done as part of this research) were that a transformation process was started which promised inter alia greater balance between diaconia and koinonia. Prophets, who formerly operated solely in the diaconial sphere of healing, began to show greater appreciation of the importance of koinonia (albeit a Christianised ubuntu). The ministers began to understand that true koinonia couldn't be separated from diaconia, since it follows from the faith relationship with God.

On the other hand it became clear that Western churches also need some re-examination of their own traditions, theological presuppositions, ideas and missiological strategies. No church can afford to focus on one or two aspects in training, like kerygma, church planting, personal piety or experiential faith, or diaconia on the other hand. What is needed is a balanced, holistic view and approach. Many places of training are excellent catalysts of evangelism, but do not really succeed in training for the healing ministry, because e.g. clinical input is precluded due to a strict pietistic understanding of the ministry. Exegesis and hermeneutical skills are not really contextualised and therefore tend to remain an ethereal ideal. Training material suffer either from synchronical or diachronical one-sidedness, or cultural/contextual ignorance.

If Western churches' or training institutes' ideal is relevancy in the training of the AlC's, much more must be made of koinonia - the lost dimension in Western Christianity, but a living reality in the AIC's. Without the element of koinonia contextualisation will be nothing but an idle dream, because it facilitates the bridging of dualisms (such as theory and practice, extrac¨tion and abstraction etc), which proofed to be the undoing of many training enterprises in Africa.

On the other hand Western churches and agencies must guard against an over-optimistic view of the AlC phenomenon. In many instances such a view is justified with the argument that all churches are or have been syncretistic in one way or another. Therefore the AIC's must be left to their own resources to develop a true African Christianity and ecclesiastical model. However, such argument is not historical realistic and denies the mutuality, interdependency and mutual responsibility of the one, holy, universal and Christian church.

© 2001 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Ludike, JL 2001, Die opbou van die Afrika Onafhanklike Kerke deur die opleiding van leraars en profete, DD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03232006-162458/ >

H1174/ag

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