Title page for ETD etd-03082005-091015


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Naidoo, Vinasan
URN etd-03082005-091015
Document Title Screening of four plants commonly used in ethnoveterinary medicine for antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and anti-oxidant activity
Degree MSc (Veterinary Science)
Department Paraclinical Sciences
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof J N Eloff Co-Supervisor
Prof G E Swan Supervisor
Keywords
  • plants
  • ethnoveterinary medicine
  • antimicrobial activity
  • antiprotozoal activity
  • anti-oxidant activity
Date 2004-11-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Urginea sanguinea, Aloe marlothii, Elephantorrhiza elephantina and Rhoicissus tridentate are all plants utilized for the management of tick borne diseases in the Madikwe area of North-west province. These plants, in certain concoctions, are believed to be effective against “seme”, “gala” and “Bolwetsi jwa mothlapo o moshibidu” which we have assumed to represent heartwater, gallsickness and redwater from circumstantial epidemiological data available.

To obtain a representative extract, which would be indicative of the general activity of the plant, only acetone or methanol extracts were tested for the presence of antimicrobial, antiparasitic or anti-oxidant activity within that specific plant. Activity in all cases made use of either an in vitro biological assay or more specific chemical tests, which were validated in all cases.

Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, all grown in specific cell cultures, were used as a model for evaluating the efficacy against the common protozoan and rickettsial diseases caused by these organisms in livestock. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, four human nosocomial infectious agents, were used as an indicator for the presence of antibacterial activity against these common animal bacterial pathogens.

Diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl and the trolox equivalent anti-oxidant chemical assays were used to determine anti-oxidant activity, which although not curative, may aid in the recovery from an infection by stimulating the immune system.

The activities demonstrated among the various plants and organisms were not consistent. E. elephantine extracts were the most effective, with activity demonstrable in all biological and chemical screening assays. Although R. tridentate demonstrated poor activity (> 100 ėg/ml) against the tick-borne parasites, the plant extract did demonstrate significant anti-oxidant activity. U. sanguinea extracts showed good activity in both the antibacterial and anti-rickettsial assays (EC50 = 44.49 ng/ml), which may be due to the presence of the toxic bufadienolides present within the plant. A. marlothii possessed significant anti-rickettsial activity (EC50= 111.4 ĩg/ml) and to a lesser degree antibacterial activity.

The results of the study support the use of these plants against heartwater, gallsickness and redwater, which gives credence for the traditional use against “Seme, Gala, and Bolwetsi jwa mothlapo o moshibidu”. Further studies are required to isolate and determine the structure of the active compounds of these plants as well as to confirm the safety and efficacy of the extracts against disease conditions in livestock.

Copyright Đ 2004, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria

Please cite as follows:

Naidoo, V, 2004, Screening of four plants commonly used in ethnoveterinary medicine for antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and anti-oxidant activity, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03082005-091015/>

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