Title page for ETD etd-03022006-161224


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Van der Walt, Magiel Jacobus
URN etd-03022006-161224
Document Title 'n Groepanalitiese eksplorasie van psigiese uitbranding by sielkundiges in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens (Afrikaans)
Degree PhD (Psychotherapy)
Department Psychology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Dr A A Gildenhuys Committee Chair
Keywords
  • burn out (Psychology)
  • police psychologists Job stress
  • group psychoanalysis
  • South African Police Service
  • phenomenology.
Date 2001-09-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: Sedert die eerste demokratiese verkiesing in Suid-Afrika in 1994 het die Suid¬Afrikaanse Polisiediens voortdurende transformasie ondergaan. Misdaad, traumatisering en selfmoord van polisiebeamptes het toegeneem. Die werkslading en eise aan die professionele hulpdienste (sielkundiges, maatskaplike werkers, kapelane) in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens het dienooreenkomstig verhoog.

Hierdie studie is ‘n eksploratiewe ondersoek by 'n aantal sielkundiges in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens oor die verskynsel van psigiese uitbranding. Hierdie is die eerste studie oor psigiese uitbranding by sielkundiges in die organisasie.

Die meeste outeurs beskou psigiese uitbranding as 'n verskynsel wat met die werksomgewing geassosieer word en spesifiek met die professionele rol van hulpverlening. Die Iiteratuurstudie oor psigiese uitbranding toon egter dat die term vir 'n groot verskeidenheid prosesse, simptome, definisies, oorsake, fases en gevolge gebruik word. Verskeie outeurs wys op die alomvattende en nie-kritiese gebruik van die term, asook die gebrekkige geïntegreerde teoretiese fundering in die veld.

Groepanalise dien as 'n integrerende teoretiese raamwerk en die data is verkry deur die k1eingroep as basis vir 'n tweedaagse groepanalitiese werkwinkel te gebruik. Sielkundiges van verskeie geografiese streke in Suid¬Afrika het die werkwinkel vrywillig bygewoon. 'n Ondersoeksituasie is aan die einde van die werkwinkel geskep waar ongestruktureerde vrae gebruik is. 'n Fenomenologiese benadering tot die ondersoeksituasie en data-analise is gebruik.

Die navorsingsresultate is beskrywend en toon dat psigiese uitbranding 'n ervaringsrealiteit by sielkundiges in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens is. Die kleingroep as data-genererende konteks, die navorsingsvrae en die vrye gespreksformaat het tot refleksie oor individuele ervarings, kleingroepervarings, asook grootgroep- en sosiale realiteite gelei. Die wederkerigheid tussen die genoemde ervarings en die self in verhouding tot verskeie aspekte dien as 'n beskrywende raamwerk vir die resultate.

Die analisering oor die refleksie van die sosiale realiteit in die navorsing toon dat sielkundiges die organisasie en die sosiale konteks as traumaties ervaar en sekondêr getraumatiseer word deur met polisielede te werk. Die organisasiesisteem en die organisasie-as-geheel dra by tot ervarings van traumatisering. Dit maak die fondasie matriks uit waar getraumatiseerde individuele en groepsprosesse manifesteer en geregresseerde en primitiewe funksioneringseienskappe, ongeïntegreerdheid en angs openbaar word.

Die studie toon dat die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens as transisionele en getraumatiseerde konteks tot 'n toestand van sosiale immobilisasie en paralise lei wat sosiale ontwikkeling, dialoog en kommunikasie beperk. Die potensiaal van die organisasie as grootgroep om tot integrasie by te dra, word deur hierdie prosesse ingeperk en inhibeer groei en transformasie.

ENGLISH: Since the first democratic general election in South Africa in 1994, the South African Police Service, as an organisation, has undergone continual transformation. The level of crime, traumatisation and suicide of police officials have increased since then. The workload and demands on the helping professions (psychologists, social workers and chaplains) have increased accordingly.

This study is an explorative investigation into the phenomenon of psychological burnout and the manifestation of this burnout among a number of psychologists employed by the South African Police Service. This is the first study involving psychological burnout that has been undertaken among psychologists in this organisation.

Most authors view psychological burnout as a phenomenon that is associated with the work environment and specifically with the professional role of those rendering assistance. The literature dealing with psychological burnout, however, reveals that the term is used for a variety of processes, symptoms, definitions, causes, phases and consequences. Various authors have pointed out both the all-inclusive and non-critical use of the term as well as the lack of an integrated theoretical grounding in the specific field.

Group analysis served as an integrating theoretical framework and the data was obtained by using the small group as a basis for a two-day group analytical workshop. Psychologists attended the workshop on a voluntary basis from various geographical regions in South Africa. An investigative situation, using unstructured questions, was created at the conclusion of the workshop. A phenomenological approach to the investigative situation and data-analysis were utilised in the research.

The research results are descriptive and reveal that psychological burnout occurs among the psychologists. The small group (as a• data-generating context), the research questions and the format of exploration led to reflection on individual experiences, small and large group experiences as well as social realities. The mutuality between the aforementioned experiences as well as the self in various relations serves as a descriptive framework for results.

An analysis of the reflection on social reality in the research firstly reveals that the psychologists experience the organisation and the social context as traumatic and secondly that the psychologists are traumatised by working with police officials. The organisation system and the organisation-as-a-whole, contribute to traumatic experiences. This comprises the foundation matrix in which traumatised individual and group related processes manifest, and primitive and regressed qualities, lack of integration and anxiety are revealed.

The study reveals that the transition and traumatising context in the South African Police Service lead to a condition of social immobilisation and paralysis, which limits social development, dialogue and communication. These processes restrict the potential of the organisation as large group to assist in integration and this in turn inhibits growth and transformation.

© 2001, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Van der Walt, MJ 2001, ’n Groepanalitiese eksplorasie van psigiese uitbranding by sielkundiges in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03022006-161224/ >

H485/ag

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