Title page for ETD etd-03022006-155039


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Visser, Maretha Johanna
URN etd-03022006-155039
Document Title Lewensvaardigheidsopleiding as MIV/VIGS-voorkomingtrategie : 'n sisteemteoretiese evaluering (Afrikaans)
Degree PhD (Psychology)
Department Psychology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof J B Schoeman Committee Chair
Mr J Perold Committee Co-Chair
Keywords
  • AIDS (Ddsease) psychological aspects
  • community psychology
  • life skills
Date 2001-08-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: In hierdie navorsing is die implementering van lewensvaardigheidsopleiding as MIV/VIGS¨ voorkoming in skole gemoniteer en geŽvalueer. Die projek is geÔnisieer deur 'n gesamentlike komitee van die Departemente van Nasionale Gesondheid, Onderwys en Welsyn en 'n aantal nie-regeringsorganisasies met die doel om die verspreiding van MIV/VIGS onder die jeug te voorkom. Die projek het behels dat twee onderwysers per skool landswyd deur 'n stelsel van afwaartse kommunikasie opgelei is om MIV/VIGS- en lewensvaardigheidsopleiding vir leerders in skole aan te bied en om die skool as geheel by die programimplementering te betrek. In hierdie navorsing is die opleiding van die onderwysers en programimplementering in twee onderwysdistrikte gemoniteer. Die navorsing het deur onderskeie fases verloop wat daartoe bygedra het dat die teoretiese onderbou vir die gemeenskapsielkunde ondersoek is, die leemtes van die tradisionele benaderings aangedui is en die sisteemteorie as onderliggende epistemologiese raamwerk vir die gemeenskapsielkunde aanbeveel word. Lewensvaardigheidsprogramme as voorkomende intervensies is ondersoek en die voorkomende benadering is geÔnterpreteer in terme van die sisteemteoretiese uitgangspunt. Die uitdagings gekoppel aan MIV/VIGS-voorkoming en die evaluering van bestaande programme is bespreek. Riglyne uit die literatuur vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van MIV/VIGS-voorkomingsprogramme in skole word ook bespreek. Die aanduiding is dat daar nog nie in Suid-Afrika programme geÔmplementeer is wat bygedra het tot 'n grootskaalse sosiale veranderingsproses wat daarop gerig is om die verspreiding van MIV/VIGS te voorkom nie. Gemeenskapsintervensies as terug- en vooruitvoerprosesse het nog nie daartoe bygedra om selfreguleringsprosesse in groot dele van die gemeenskap te fasiliteer nie. Dit kan moontlik toegeskryf word aan individuele en gemeenskapsprosesse intern tot die gemeenskap wat verandering in hierdie verband teenwerk. Die proses van program-implementering is ook bestudeer aan die hand waarvan die implementering van die program in die skole bestudeer kon word.

Die programmonitering is gedoen deur 'n aksienavorsingsproses te implementeer wat gestrek het oor die periode van twee jaar. Dit het behels dat elke fase van die implementeringsproses geŽvalueer is en daar terugvoering gegee is wat gebruik kon word in die implementering van die volgende fase van programimplementering. Die opleiding van onderwysers is eerstens deur deelnemende waameming en terugvoer van die opgeleide onderwysers tydens twee opleidingsessies waaraan 34 onderwysers deelgeneem het, geŽvalueer. Daama is die vordering met programimplementering ondersoek deur onderhoude met die opgeleide onderwysers in 24 skole te voer. Die terugvoer uit die onderhoude was dat daar prosesse intern en ekstern tot die skoolsisteem is wat programimplementering benadeel. Hierna is verdere intervensies geÔmplementeer om van die prosesse wat programimplementering benadeel, te probeer verminder. Die intervensies het onder andere beoog om al die rolspelers in die skoolsisteem, die leerders, al die onderwysers, die ouers en die skoolhoofde by die programimplementering te betrek. Hierdie fase van die implementeringsproses is gemoniteer deur vyf skole in die area as gevallestudies te bestudeer met die doel om die betekenisse wat die onderskeie rolspelers aan die program en programimplementering heg, te ondersoek. Die moniteringsproses is begin deur 'n situasie-ontleding te doen waarin die hoŽ risikogedrag van leerders ondersoek is en terugvoering aan die ondenvysers gegee is oor die behoeftes van leerders wat in die lewensvaardigheidsprogramme aangespreek kan word. Dit het daartoe bygedra dat konteksspesifieke programme ontwikkel kon word. Die programimplementering en waargenome uitkoms van die programme is ondersoek in onderhoude met die opgeleide onderwysers en die skoolhoofde en fokusgroepbesprekings met die leerders en ander personeellede. Na die implementering van intervensies het dieselfde groep leerders weer die vraelys wat in die situasie-ontleding as voormeting ingevul het, as nameting ingevul. Uit die twee vraelyste is die hoŽ risikogedragspatrone en verandering in gedragspatrone van die leerders ondersoek.

Die programevaluering is gedoen vanuit die ekosistemiese verwysingsraamwerk met komponente van die sosiale konstruksionisme ingesluit. Deur die gebruik van kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe navorsingsmetodes aanvullend tot mekaar, kon verskillende prosesse in die gemeenskap ondersoek word, elk op 'n gepaste vlak van ontIeding. Die betekenisse wat die onderskeie rolspelers aan die program geheg het, is deur beskrywende data ondersoek, terwyl gedragspatrone van groter groepe leerders deur metings en statistiese ontleding ondersoek is. Deur data van verskillende rolspelers met verskillende data-insamelingsmetodes te integreer kon 'n geheelbeeld van prosesse in die skoolgemeenskap gekry word.

Die resultate van die navorsmg dui aan dat daar tydens die moniteringstydperk slegs beperkte programimplementering in die skole plaasgevind het. In enkele skole is enkele Voorligtingperiodes gebruik om die programinhoud aan te bied. Die implementering het egter nie verder as die inisiŽringsfase gevorder nie. Die organisasie en struktuur van die skoolsisteem het dit vir die meerderheid onderwysers nie moontlik gemaak om die program te implementeer nie en ten spyte van die onderskeie intervensies het daar nie verandering in die organsisasie en struktuur van die skoolsisteem ter ondersteuning van die programimplementering plaasgevind nie. Hierdie bevinding word verduidelik deur die prosesse wat programimplementering teenwerk te ontleed in terme van Bateson (1979) se orde van logiese tipering waarin hoŽr-orde prosesse laer-orde prosesse kan reguleer. HoŽr-orde prosessse wat geÔdentifiseer is wat die programimplementering benadeel het, was onder andere die volgende:

ē Die gebrek aan deelname van ander onderwysers weens gebrek aan kennis oor MIV/VIGS en betekenisse wat hulle aan hul rol as onderwysers heg.

ē Die skoolhoof se gebrek aan betrokkenheid, omdat dit nie moontlik was om die groot aantal gestelde doelwitte in die skool te bereik met die beperkte hulpbronne nie. Die struktuur van die skool was nie sodanig dat dit verandering in die organisasie moontlik maak nie.

ē Beperkte ondersteuning vanuit die Onderwysdepartment, weens die projekbestuur se hoŽ werkslading en min ondervinding in die implementering van programme. Meervoudige doelwitte vanuit die Departement van Onderwys, baie veranderings wat gelyktydig geÔmplementeer word, gepaard met die vermindering van hulpbronne, dra by tot 'n skoolsisteem wat nie die kapasiteit het om verandering te implementeer nie.

ē Prosesse in die makrokonteks dra ook by tot die gebrek aan programimplementering. Die onderwysklimaat, gekenmerk deur 'n gebrekkige kultuur van onderrig en leer, lae motiveringsvlakke, gebrek aan dissipline en 'n eksterne lokus van beheer waardeur die onderskeie rolspelers nie aktief is in die oplos van probleme nie, maar 'n ingesteldheid het dat hulle hulp van buite-instansies nodig het, kan die programimplementering benadeel. Hoewel die grootste deel van die gemeenskap bewus is van die MIV/VIGS-epidemie, is daar gemeenskapsprosesse wat die voorkoming daarvan teenwerk. Die passiewe klimaat in die gemeenskap rakend MIV/VIGS kon ook die proses van programimplementering benadeel.

Wat hieruit blyk, is dat die reŽls of sosiale betekenisse onderliggend aan gedrag op elke vlak van ontleding nog nie verander het nie en dat daar 'n verskeidenheid hoŽr-orde prosesse is wat die program impIementering kan benadeel.

Na 'n implemeteringstydperk van twee jaar het daar nie statisties beduidende verandering in die leerders se gedragspatrone plaasgevind nie. In die nameting het die leerders meer kennis van MIV/VIGS gehad, maar daar was nie 'n beduidende vermindering in hoŽ risikogedragpatrone nie. In drie van die vyf skole was daar 'n verhoging in gerapporteerde seksuele aktiwiteit en 'n tendens in die rigting van meer onverantwoordelike gedrag ten opsigte van kondoomgebruik en meervoudige seksuele maats. Die moontlikheid van meer openlikheid in die rapportering van gedrag moet egter in ag geneem word. Daar word weer aangedui dat die gedragspatrone van leerders nie verander het nie, omdat die reŽls of betekenisse onderliggend aan die gedragsprosesse nie verander het tydens die intervensies nie.

Aanbevelings word gemaak om die programimplementering te verbeter veral in terme van die volgende:

ē verandering in hoŽr-orde prosesse veral in terme van die onderwysklimaat en prosesse in die onderwyssisteem, veral ten opsigte van doelwitte en hulpbronvoorsiening;

ē die implementeringstrategie waarin deelname uit die gemeenskap belangrik om gedeelde betekenisse te vorm; en

ē die vlak van programintervensie om ook reŽls onderliggend aan gedrag en hoŽr-orde leerprosesse in te sluit.

In die navorsmgsproses het ook teoretiese insigte ontwikkel wat bygedra het tot die ontwikkeling van 'n teoretiese onderbou vir gemeenskapsintervensies en metodologiese ontwikkeling in terme van die integrering van veelvuldige navorsingsmetodes binne die sisteemteoretiese verwysingsraamwerk.

ENGLISH: This research monitored and evaluated life skills training in the prevention of HIVIAIDS in schools. The project was initiated by a joint committee of the Departments of National Health, Education and Welfare with the object of preventing the spread of HIV I AIDS among young people. In terms of the project two teachers per school countrywide were trained by means of a top-down communication system to present HIVIAIDS and life skills training to school learners and to involve the school as a whole in the implementation of the programme. The research monitored the teacher training and programme implementation in two educational districts. The research was conducted in different phases, involving an investigation of the theoretical foundation for community psychology, an indication of the gaps in traditional approaches, and the recommendation of system theory as the underlying epistemological framework for community psychology. Life skills programmes as preventive interventions were investigated and the preventive approach was interpreted in terms of the system-theoretical perspective. The challenges linked to HIVIAIDS prevention and the evaluation of existing programmes are discussed, as are guidelines from the literature for the development and implementation of HIVIAIDS prevention programmes in schools. Programmes have evidently not yet been introduced in South Africa to bring about a large-scale social change process aimed at the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Community. interventions in the form of feedback and feed-forward processes have not yet helped to facilitate self-regulation in large parts of the community. This can possibly be ascribed to individual and community processes in the community itself which oppose change in this regard. The programme implementation process was also studied on the basis of which the implementation of the programme in schools could be examined.

Programme monitoring was carried out by means of action research that extended over the two-year period. This meant that each phase of the implementation process was evaluated and the resultant feedback used in the next phase of the programme implementation. First the training of teachers was evaluated on the basis of participatory observation and feedback from the trained teachers during two training sessions attended by 34 teachers. Progress with programme implementation was then investigated by conducting interviews with the trained teachers in 24 schools. The feedback from the interviews was that processes internal and external to the school system were inhibiting programme implementation. Subsequently, further interventions took place in an attempt to reduce these inhibiting processes. The main aim of the interventions was to involve all the role players in the school system ¨the learners, all the teachers, the parents and the school principals - in the programme implementation. This phase of the implementation process was monitored by examining five schools in the area as case studies to determine the meaning the various role players attached to the programme and to its implementation. The monitoring process began with a situation analysis involving the investigation of the high-risk behaviour of the learners and providing feedback to the teachers on learner needs that could be addressed in the life skills programmes. This contributed to the development of context-specific programmes. The programme implementation and the observed outcomes of the programmes were investigated through interviews with the trained teachers and the school principals, and through focus group discussions with the learners and other members of staff. Following the implementation of the interventions the same group of learners again filled in the questionnaire as a pot-measurement; this was the questionnaire they had filled in earlier as a pre-measurement step in the situation analysis. The high-risk behaviour patterns of the learners and changes in these behaviour patterns could be investigated on the basis of the two questionnaires.

The programme evaluation was done from an ecosystemic framework that included components of social constructionism. Through the use of complementary qualitative and quantitative research methods, different processes in the community could be investigated, each on an appropriate level of analysis. The meaning attached to the programme by the various role players was investigated by means of descriptive data, while the behaviour patterns of larger groups of learners were investigated on the basis of measurements and statistical analysis. By integrating the data of different role players with different data-collection methods, an overall view of processes in the school community could be obtained.

The research results indicated that during the monitoring period only limited programme implementation took place in the schools. In a few schools a few guidance periods were used for the presentation of the programme content. However, the implementation did not progress further than the initiation phase. The organisation and structure of the school system made it impossible for most teachers to implement the programme and, despite the various interventions, no changes took place in the school system to promote programme implementation. This finging is explained by analyzing the processes that oppose programme implementation in terms of Bateson's (1979) order of logical typing in which higher order processes can regulate lower order processes. Identified higher order processes that inhibited programme implementation included the following:

ē The limited participation of other teachers because of their lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the meaning they attached to their role as teachers.

ē The limited involvement of the school principal because of the impossibility of achieving the large number of goals set in the school with inadequate resources. The school structure did not lend itself to any changes.

ē Limited support from the Department of Education because of the project managementís high work load and limited experience in the implementation of programmes. The multiple objectives of the Department of Education, the many changes implemented simultaneously, together with a reduction in resources, contributed to a school system that did not have the capacity to implement further change.

ē Macro-context processes also contributed to the lack of programme implementation. The educational climate, characterised by a defective culture of teaching and learning, low motivation levels, lack of discipline and an external locus of control whereby the various role players were not active in problem solving, but whose disposition suggested that they needed help from external institutions, also helped inhibit programme implementation. Although most of the community were aware of the HIV / AIDS epidemic, certain community processes militated against the combating of the scourge. The passive climate in the community regarding HIV / AIDS further undermined the programme implementation process.

What emerges from this is that the rules or social meaning underlying behaviour on every level of analysis have not changed yet and that various higher order processes can inhibit the programme implementation.

After an implementation period of two years no statistically significant change in the learners' behaviour patterns had taken place. In the post-measurement the learners demonstrated more knowledge of HIV / AIDS, but there was not a significant reduction in their high-risk behaviour patterns. Learners in three of the five. schools reported an increase in sexual activity and a trend towards more irresponsible behaviour in condom use and multiple sexual partners. However, the possibility of greater openness in behaviour reporting should be taken into account. It was again indicated that the behaviour patterns of learners had not changed, as the rules or meanings underlying their behaviour processes had not changed during the interventions.

Recommendations are made for improving programme implementation, especially in terms of the following:

ē a change in higher order processes particularly in respect of the educational climate and processes in the education system, especially concerning objectives and resource provision;

ē a the implementation strategy in which community participation is important in developing shared meanings;

ē a raising the level of programme intervention by including rules underlying behaviour and higher order learning processes.

The research process also led to the development of theoretical insights that contributed to the construction of a theoretical foundation for community interventions and methodological development in terms of the integration of multiple research methods within the system-theoretical reference framework.

© 2001, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Visser, MJ 2001, Lewensvaardigheidsopleiding as MIV/VIGS-voorkomingstrategie: Ďn sisteemteoretiese evaluering, PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03022006-155039/ >

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