Title page for ETD etd-02232010-173709


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Thobejane, Mamphofore Mack
URN etd-02232010-173709
Document Title Tsiri : Padinyana ya Madiba (Sepedi)
Degree Master of Arts
Department African Languages
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof M J Mojalefa Supervisor
Keywords
  • negatief
  • narrative technique
  • narrative strategy
  • characterization
  • tema
  • positive
  • content
  • negative
  • theme
  • topic
  • verteltegniek
  • morality
  • point of view
  • focalization
  • vertelstrategie
  • structure
  • onderwerp
  • struktuur
  • karakterisering
  • moraal
  • positief
  • inhoud
Date 2009-09-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

In his monograph on Sepedi/North Sotho, Groenewald (1993:19) describes Moses Josiah Madiba as one of the first authors of didactic or moral tales. He also points out that Madiba’s contribution includes other kinds of works, such as poetry and school readers. Groenewald (1993:19) emphasises Madiba’s pioneering role in the development of literature in Sepedi. Because he was one of the earliest writers in Sepedi, his influence on the development of this literature should not be underestimated. In this study, the focus is therefore on the writing of Madiba as an author, but only his novelette Tsiri (1953) is selected for specific analysis. In the analysis, the content and structure of the work are discussed in detail and they are interpreted against the historical background of Sepedi literature in order to highlight Madiba’s place in this literature. The descriptive model used in this study is an adaptation of the narratological model. It requires a comprehensive definition of the relevant concepts. In this case a distinction is made between the theme and topic as concepts. The elements of the content, namely the characters, the action, the milieu and historical time, are defined precisely.

The novelette deals with the difficult life circumstances encountered by the protagonist, which result in his falling into a life of laziness. The relationship that develops between the various characters is highlighted in terms of the topic. The historical course of the facets of the action is described. The various time aspects are closely examined, after which the milieu is discussed. The entire discussion is situated in an historical framework in order to reveal the importance of Madiba in the history of this literature.

The structure of the work is discussed in four sections. First, the theme of the story, the narrative strategy, the title and the pillars on which the structure rests are discussed. Second, characterization is explored, with particular emphasis on Tsiri and his father, Madubaduba, who respectively represent the negative and positive poles in the novelette. This includes a discussion of the various narrative techniques which are used to persuade the reader to accept Tsiri after he repents. Third, the milieu is described in as far as it supports the theme. It contributes to the rationale for the turning point in Tsiri’s life. The milieu is functionally incorporated by means of a multitude of techniques. Fourth, the study focuses on the action, which presents the events in terms of an exposition, the development, climax and dénouement. Once the author has indicated the conflict between the main characters, he uses a variety of narrative moments to increase tension. In particular, he uses changes of the point of view and focalisation extensively.

As can be expected in the early works in any literature, there are some bothersome structural flaws, and in this case they are related specifically to the use of the different points of view, where there is no clear rationale for the presence of the author’s moralisation. Although this flaw is pointed out, this does not imply a negative critical analysis of the work. The fact remains that Madiba writes in a flowing narrative style and that his Sepedi language usage is impeccable, which makes him an important pioneer in the history of Sepedi literature. His pioneering work in the educational arena positions him as a champion of the Sepedi language. Further studies could evaluate his other novelettes and poems against this background.

AFRIKAANS : In sy monografie oor die Sepedi/Noord Sotho letterkunde beskryf Groenewald (1993:19) Moses Josiah Madiba as een van die eerste skrywers van die didaktiese of morele verhaal. Hy wys ook daarop dat Madiba se bydrae ander werke insluit, byvoorbeeld gedigte en skoolleesboeke. Groenewald (1993:19) beklemtoon Madiba se baanbrekerswerk in die Sepedi letterkunde. Omdat hy een van die vroegste skrywers in Sepedi was, mag sy invloed op die ontwikkeling van hierdie letterkunde nie onderskat word nie. In hierdie studie word die ondersoek derhalwe op die skrywerskap van Madiba toegespits, maar slegs die novelle Tsiri (1953) word vir spesifieke ontleding uitgesonder. In die bespreking word die inhoud en die struktuur van die werk indringend beskryf en dit word teen die historiese agtergrond van die Sepedi letterkunde geïnterpreteer om sodoende Madiba se plek in hierdie letterkunde duidelik uit te lig. Die beskrywingsmodel wat in hierdie studie gebruik word, is ‘n aanpassing van die narratologiese model. Dit vereis ‘n volledige omskrywing van die begrippe wat ter sprake kom. In hierdie geval word daar tussen die tema en die onderwerp as begrippe onderskei. Ook die elemente waaruit die inhoud bestaan, naamlik die karakters, die handeling, die milieu en historiese tyd, word presies omskryf.

Die novelle handel oor die hooffiguur se moeilike lewensomstandighede, wat daartoe bydra dat hy in luiheid verval. Die verhouding wat tussen die verskillende karakters ontwikkel, word ten opsigte van die onderwerp uitgelig. Die historiese verloop van die fasette van die handeling word beskryf. Die verskillende tydsaspekte word onder die loep geneem, waarna die milieu bespreek word. Die hele bespreking word binne ‘n historiese raamwerk geplaas sodat die betekenis van Madiba in die geskiedenis van hierdie letterkunde na vore kom.

Die struktuur van die werk word in vier afdelings behandel. Eerstens word die tema, die vertelstrategie, die titel en pilare waarop die struktuur staan, bespreek. Tweedens word karaktertekening nagegaan; en hier val die kollig op Tsiri en sy vader Madubaduba, wat onderskeidelik die negatiewe en positiewe pole in die verhaal verteenwoordig. Dit sluit ‘n bespreking in van die verskillende verteltegnieke waardeur die leser oorgehaal word om Tsiri, na sy berou, te aanvaar. Derdens, word die milieu beskryf en wel in soverre dit die tema ondersteun. Dit dra daarom by dat die keerpunt in Tsiri se lewe gemotiveer word. Deur ‘n veelheid van tegnieke word die milieu funksioneel ingespan. Vierdens val die klem op die handeling wat onder vier hoofde aan die orde kom, te wete die eksposisie, die ontwikkeling, die klimaks en die ontknoping. Nadat die outeur die botsing tussen die hooffigure aangedui het, kom hy met ‘n verskeidenheid vertelgrepe vorendag om die spanning uit te bou. Daar word veral gebruik gemaak van gesigspuntwisseling en fokussering word ekstensief aangewend.

Soos te wagte in enige vroeë werk in ‘n letterkunde, kom daar hinderlike struktuurfoute voor, en in dié geval lê dit juis by die aanwending van die gesigspunttegnieke, waar die teenwoordigheid van die outeur se moralisering nie duidelik gemotiveer word nie. Hoewel die gebrek uitgewys word, lei dit nie na ‘n kritiese ontleding van die werk nie. Die saak is dat Madiba ‘n vloeiende vertelmanier het en dat sy taal in onbesproke Sepedi is, wat hom in die geskiedenis van die Sepedi letterkunde ‘n belangrike baanbreker maak. Sy pionierswerk op die gebied van die onderwys plaas hom as taalstryder voorop. In verdere studies sou sy ander novelles en gedigte teen hierdie agtergrond beoordeel kan word.

Copyright © 2009, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Thobejane, MM 2009, Tsiri : Padinyana ya Madiba (Sepedi), MA dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-02232010-173709/ >

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