Title page for ETD etd-02172010-104239


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Van der Linde, Anton
URN etd-02172010-104239
Document Title Grondwetlike erkenning van regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe met verwysing na aspekte van artikel 8 van die Europese Verdrag vir die beskerming van die regte en vryhede van die mens (Afrikaans)
Degree LLD
Department Private Law
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof J M T Labuschagne Co-Supervisor
Prof L N van Schalkwyk Supervisor
Keywords
  • human rights South Africa
  • parent and child (law) South Africa
Date 2001-04-01
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: In 1994 het die Republiek van Suid-Afrika 'n nuwe konstitusionele era betree. Die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika Wet 200 van 1993 (die interim Grondwet), wat in werking getree het op 27 April 1994, het basiese menseregte en vryhede aan alle Suid-Afrikaners gewaarborg. Grondwetlike beginsel II in Bylae 4 daarvan, het onder meer die volgende voorskrif ten aansien van die inhoud van die finale grondwetlike teks bevat:

“Elkeen moet alle universeel aanvaarde fundamentele regte, vryhede en burgerlike vryhede genlet, waarvoor voorslening gemaak moet word en wat beskerm moet word deur verskanste en beregbare bepalings in die Grondwet, wat opgestel moet word na behoorlike inagnemlng van, onder andere, die fundamentele regte vervat in Hoofstuk 3 van hlerdle Grondwet."

Vervolgens het die Konstitusionele Hof voortgegaan om die finale grondwetllke teks aan grondwetllke beginsel II te toets met die oog op die sertifisering en inwerkingtreding daarvan. Een van die besware wat teen die grondwetlike teks ingebring was, was dat daar geen uitdruklike voorsiening vir die erkenning en beskerming van regte ten aansien van die gesin en die gesinslewe voorkom nie, terwyl sodanige regte in die algemeen erkenning geniet in internasionale menseregte-instrumente en in die grondwette van verskeie state. Die beswaar is deur die Konstitusionele Hof van die hand gewys. Die finale Grondwet, Wet 108 van 1996, het in 1996 in werking getree sonder die uitdruklike insluiting van fundamentele regte betreffende die gesin en gesinslewe.

Die moontllke uitdruklike erkenning en beskerming van fundamentele regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe in die Grondwet; die betekenis en inhoud van die konsep "gesin" en "gesinslewe" vir doeleindes van die beskerming bepleit; die hedendaagse belang van die gesin; die juridiese aard van fundamentele regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe; die inhoud, omvang en beperking van fundamentele regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe; die effek van regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe op die ouer-kind verhouding; die omgangsreg en reg op inllgting van ouers en hul minderjarige kinders asook op diverse aspekte van die Suid-Afrikaanse reg; en laastens, die moontllke toekomstige ontwikkellng en uitbreiding van sodanige reg(te).

As basis vir die ondersoek dien 'n regsvergelykende studie van die uitleg van artikel 8 van die Europese Verdrag vir die Beskerming van die Regte en Fundamentele vryhede van die Mens deur die Europese Hof vir die Regte van die Mens. Artikel 8 lui:

"1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence (eie kursivering).

2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as In accordance with the law and Is necessary in a democratic society In the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others."

Benewens die beslissings van die Europese Hof vir die Regte van die Mens word die posisie in Nederland spesifiek onder die loep geneem met verwysing na die toepassing van artikel 8 deur die Hoge Raad op die Nederlandse reg.

Die waarde van die ondersoek is egter nie afhanklik van die korrektheid al dan nie, van die siening dat die gesin en gesinslewe uitdruklike beskerming behoort te geniet nie. Selfs indien aanvaar word dat die gesin en gesinslewe wel voldoende indirekte beskerming in die Grondwet geniet, 5005 deur die Konstitusionele Hof beslis, is vrae na aspekte soos wat 'n gesin uitmaak en wat 'n reg op die gesin en gesinslewe inhou steeds in 'n groot mate onbeantwoord. 'n Ondersoek van die aard is dus van groot nut om antwoorde op die vrae te bied. Uit die ondersoek blyk verder dat die mate van (indirekte) beskerming wat die gesin (en gesinslede) geniet, groter effektiwiteit sal verkry indien uitdruklike regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe wel in die Grondwet vervat sou word. Pogings om aspekte van die gesinslewe onder artikels wat indirekte beskerming verleen tuis te bring is dikwels geforseerd terwyl sodanige aspekte internasionaal met groter gemak hanteer word deur dit onder 'n uitdruklike reg op respek vir die gesinslewe tuis te bring. In die proefskrif word ten slotte aanbeveel dat die volgende reg(te) in die Grondwet vervat word:

"(1) Die gesin geniet die spesiale beskerming van die staat.

(2) Elkeen het die reg op respelk vir die gesinslewe."

ENGLISH: In 1994 South Africa entered a new constitutional era. Its interim Constitution, the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993, which came into operation on 27 April 1994, guaranteed to all south Africans basic human rights and freedoms. Constitutional principle II thereof contained the following instruction regarding the content of the final constitutional text:

"Everyone shall enjoy all universally accepted fundamental rights, freedoms and civil liberties, which shall be provided for and protected by entrenched and justiciable provisions in the Constitution, which shall be drafted after having given due consideration to inter alia the fundamental rights contained In Chapter 3 of this Constitution."

Consequently, the Constitutional Court had to ascertain whether the final constitutional text complied with this principle in view of the certification and implementation thereof. One of the complaints against the final text was the absence of explicit recognition and protection of rights with regard to the family and family life, whilst such rights enjoyed general recognition in international human rights instruments and in the constitutions of several states. The Constitutional court rejected this complaint. The final Constitution, Act 108 of 1996, came into operation in 1996 without the explicit inclusion of fundamental rights with regard to the family and family life.

The following aspects are investigated in the thesis: The possible explicit recognition and protection of fundamental rights with regard to the family and family life in the Constitution; the meaning and content of the concept "family" and "family life" for the purpose of the envisaged protection; the present-day importance of the family; the content, extent and limitation of fundamental rights with regard to the family and family life; the effect of rights with regard to the family and family life on the parent-child relationship and the right to access and information of parents and their minor children as well as on sundry aspects of the south African law. Lastly, the possible future development and expansion of such right(s) is investigated.

As basis for the investigation serve a comparative study of the interpretation of article 8 of the European Convention for the protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms by the European court for Human Rights. Article 8 stipulates:

"1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence (my italics).

2. There shall be no interference by a public authority With the exercise of this right except such as in accordance with the law and Is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others."

Apart from the judgments of the European Court for Human Rights the position in the Netherlands is specifically investigated with reference to the application of article 8 by the Hoge Raad on Dutch law.

The value, however, of this investigation is not dependant on the correctness or not of the view that the family and family life should enjoy explicit protection in the Constitution. Even if one accepts that the family and family life enjoys sufficient indirect protection in the Constitution as decided by the Constitutional court, aspects such as what constitutes a family and the content of such right(s) are in a large degree unanswered. An investigation of this nature is thus of great value in order to provide answers to such questions. The investigation further indicates that the degree to which the family enjoys indirect protection will receive greater effect if explicit rights with regard to the family and family life are contained in the Constitution. Attempts to deal with aspects of family life under sections of the Constitution which presumably afford indirect protection is often forcing the issue whilst such issues are internationally dealt with great ease under an explicit right to respect for family life. In the thesis it is finally recommended that the following rights should be contained in the Constitution:

"(1) The family enjoys the special protection of the state.

(2) Everyone has the right to respect for family life."

© 2001, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Van der Linde, A 2001, Grondwetlike erkenning van regte ten aansien van die gesin en gesinslewe met verwysing na aspekte van artikel 8 van die Europese Verdrag vir die beskerming van die regte en vryhede van die mens, LLD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-02172010-104239/ >

H491/ag

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