Title page for ETD etd-02112010-130627


Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Mtangi, Wilbert
Email wilbert.mtangi@up.ac.za
URN etd-02112010-130627
Document Title Electrical characterization of ZnO and metal ZnO contacts
Degree MSc
Department Physics
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof F D Auret Committee Chair
Dr J M Nel Committee Co-Chair
Keywords
  • Schottky contacts
  • current transport
  • barrier height inhomogeneities
  • barrier height
  • surface states and claenliness
  • surface conduction
  • shallow donors
  • hall effect
  • capacitance voltage
  • current voltage measurements
  • acceptors
  • temperature dependent Hall measurements
  • ohmic contacts
  • fermi level pinning
  • temperature coefficients
Date 2010-02-11
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

The electrical properties of ZnO and contacts to ZnO have been investigated using different techniques. Temperature dependent Hall (TDH) effect measurements have been used to characterize the as-received melt grown ZnO samples in the 20 330 K temperature range. The effect of argon annealing on hydrogen peroxide treated ZnO samples has been investigated in the 200 800oC temperature range by the TDH effect measurement technique. The experimental data has been analysed by fitting a theoretical model written in Matlab to the data. Donor concentrations and acceptor concentrations together with the associated energy levels have been extracted by fitting the models to the experimentally obtained carrier concentration data by assuming a multi-donor and single charged acceptor in solving the charge balance equation. TDH measurements have revealed the dominance of surface conduction in melt grown ZnO in the 20 40 K temperature range. Surface conduction effects have proved to increase with the increase in annealing temperature. Surface donor volume concentrations have been determined in the 200 800oC by use of theory developed by D. C. Look.

Good rectifying Schottky contacts have been fabricated on ZnO after treating the samples with boiling hydrogen peroxide. Electrical properties of these Schottky contacts have been investigated using current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements in the 60 300 K temperature range. The Schottky contacts have revealed the dominance of predominantly thermionic emission at room temperature and the existence of other current transport mechanisms at temperatures below room temperature.

Polarity effects on the Schottky contacts deposited on the O-polar and Zn-polar faces of ZnO have been demonstrated by the IV technique on the Pd and Au Schottky contacts at room temperature. Results obtained indicate a strong dependence of the Schottky contact quality on the polarity of the samples at room temperature. The quality of the Schottky contacts have also indicated their dependence on the type of metal used with the Pd producing contacts with the better quality as compared to the Au.

Schottky barrier heights determined using temperature dependent IV measurements have been observed to increase with increasing temperature and this has been explained as an effect of barrier inhomogeneities, while the ones obtained from CV measurements have proved to follow the negative temperature coefficient of the II VI semiconductor material, i.e. a decrease in barrier height with increasing temperature. However, the values have proved to be larger than the energy gap of ZnO, an effect that has been explained as caused by an inversion layer.

Copyright 2009, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Mtangi, W 2009, Electrical characterization of ZnO and metal ZnO contacts, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-02112010-130627/ >

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