Title page for ETD etd-02072012-124932

Document Type Master's Dissertation
Author Mashangoane, Boitumelo Francina
URN etd-02072012-124932
Document Title Monitoring of fouling and clean-in-place (CIP) using the Rotoscope and microscopy and monitoring of trihalomethanes (THMs) produced from electro chemically activated (ECA) water during CIP
Degree MSc
Department Microbiology and Plant Pathology
Advisor Name Title
Prof T E Cloete Supervisor
  • Rotoscope
  • microscopy
  • trihalomethanes (THMs)
  • water
  • clean-in-place (CIP)
  • electro chemically activated (ECA) water
Date 2011-09-09
Availability unrestricted
The unwanted occurrence of biofilms in various industries requires critical remedial action in order to prevent their detrimental effects which potentially result in huge economic losses. Adequate monitoring of biofilms is a powerful tool to aid their thorough understanding and ultimate control. The Rotoscope is an instrument based on the principle of light absorption and reflection that was used in this study to monitor and study biofilms. Biofilm development of cocci and bacilli species was monitored using the Rotoscope and microscopy. Light reflectance decreased over time as the biofilm developed. Information on the different stages of biofilm development could also be deduced from light reflectance assays of the Rotoscope. Microscopy validated results which were obtained from light reflectance assays. Information on the morphology of the bacteria, depth of the biofilm as well as the different stages of biofilm development was deduced from EM and CLSM images. The Rotoscope was an easy, effective, on-line monitoring device for the development of biofilms. It was a lso showed to be useful in coll ecting informati on to help characterize bacteria species present within a biofilm

The Rotoscope was integrated into a simulated soft drink (SO) production line to monitor biofouling and the efficacy of a clean-in-place (CIP) regime using electrochemically acti vated (ECA) water. During CIF the Catholyte and Anolyte (components of ECA) were effective as detergent and disinfectant respecti vely. This was indi cated by results obtained from microbial analysis of removable slides from the MPD, microscopic analysis, as well as pH, ORP and EC analysis. The absence of microbial growth and soil on microscope slides from the Rotoscope were a good indication of the high efficacy of Catholyte and Anolyte (components of ECA) as detergent and disinfectant respectively in a crp system. In addition, the re latively constant values reported for pH, ORP and EC before and aft er CIP suggests that the Catholyte and Anolyte were effective during CIF.

The effect of Anolyte on trihalomethane (THM) formation was observed because of the presence of chl orine compounds. Low levels of THMs were obtained from CIP effluent which provided a good indicati on that Anolyte is an environmentally friendly alternative disinfectant compared to conventional disinfectants currently used in CIP. Increased pH and the presence of bromide resulted in an overall increase of THMs in systems using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) models (Glucose, maltose and phenol). There was however variation in the amount of THM produced using the three DOC models. The differences were attributed to the composition of organic matter in particular the aromacity and the nature and position of the functional groups of the model DOCs.

2011, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Mashangoane, EM 2011, Monitoring of fouling and clean-in-place (CIP) using the Rotoscope and microscopy and monitoring of trihalomethanes (THMs) produced from electro chemically activated (ECA) water during CIP, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-02072012-124932 / >


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