Title page for ETD etd-01282012-232003


Document Type Doctoral Thesis
Author Reyneke, Jacobus Louw
URN etd-01282012-232003
Document Title Towery by die Tswana met besondere verwysing na die Kgatla-bagaKgafela (Afrikaans)
Degree DPhil
Department Anthropology
Supervisor
Advisor Name Title
Prof P J Coertze Supervisor
Keywords
  • kgotla
  • dingaka
  • bongaka
  • Kgatla-bagaKgafela
  • Tswana magic
  • towery by die Tswana
Date 1971-09-05
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
AFRIKAANS: Die proefskrif handel oor die bongaka of towerypraktyke van die Batswana in Transvaal en Botswana. Die studie is hoofsaaklik gebaseer op oorspronklike navorsingswerk wat vanaf 1952 tot 1968 gedoen is, toe meer as 300 tekste in die Tswana-taal woordeliks afgeskryf is soos gedikteer deur 16 Tswana-dingaka of towerybeoefenaars. Meeste van die tekste is deur dingaka van die Kgatla-bagaKgafela gedikteer, maar ook is daar tekste van die Ngwato, Kwena, Tlokwa, Tlhako en ander stamme se dingaka. Hierdie tekste met vertaling langsaan en verklarende aantekeninge vorm die grondslag van hierdie proefskrif en word derhalwe as byvoegsel in ‘n tweede band hierby aangebied. In die verhandeling word voortdurend na hierdie tekste verwys, veral omdat inligting wat voorheen nie beskikbaar was nie vir sover dit die Tswana betref, daardeur bekombaar geword het en in ‘n sekere sin is dit ‘n uitbouing van die bestaande literatuur oor die denke en wesensopvatting van die suidelike Bantoe.

Die proefskrif gee ‘n inleidende oorsig oor bestaande opvattings oor towery waarin die belangrikste beskouinge in die Volkekunde behandel word. Hierna word die geskiedenis van die Kgatla asook die stamstruktuur van die Tswana behandel, met ‘n oorsig oor die sosiale organisasie, die gesagstruktuur, ekonomiese aspek en die godsdienstige lewe. In hoofstuk IV word meer spesifiek gelet op die toordokters en hul klassifisering waarna in hoofstuk V in meer detail gelet word op die opleiding van die dingaka, hul toerusting, en skakeling met die badimo of voorouergeeste. Hul invloedsfeer in die stamlewe word vervolgens behandel soos o.a. in die kgotla of volksvergaderplek, in die gesinslewe, en hoe hul optree as “beskermers” van die gemeenskap, en as bemiddelaars in die stamreligie.

Die veelvuldige dienste wat hulle as geëerde en gesogte helpers verrig in hul samelewing word meer uitvoerig bespreek in hoofstuk VII, soos o.a. hul optrede teen baloi of toornaars.

Dolosgooiery met die ditaola word analities bespreek om die onderliggende sisteem by die interpretasie van die valwyses te verklaar. Vervolgens word die ngaka as geneesheer behandel, met ‘n noukeurige ondersoek na die metodes van behandeling by verskillende soorte siektes, asook die vroegtydige afwering daarvan. ‘n Faset van die bongaka waaraan besondere aandag gegee is, is die plante wat gebruik word. Monsters van meer as 500 verskillende plante is onder leiding van die dingaka in die veld versamel en hul gebruike in die tekste aangeteken, waarna hul vir identifikasie na die Nasionale Herbarium in Pretoria gestuur is. Heelwat nuwe lig kon gewerp word op die Tswana-name en –gebruike van die inheemse plante wat in hoofstuk IX behandel word. ‘n Lys van die name uit Tswana na die wetenskaplike benaming, en ook andersom word as byvoegsel aangeheg.

Hoofstuk X handel oor die gebruik van insekte, reptiele, voëls en ander diere, asook die mens, in die preparate van die dingaka.

In ‘n slothoofstuk word die denke by die Bantoe met betrekking tot die magiese en die empiriese nagegaan in die lig van die voorgaande uiteensetting met verwysing na die bestaande literatuur. In dié hoofstuk word die towerygeloof ook eties beoordeel en daar word ook gelet op die invloed wat dit nog het op die hedendaagse Kgatla en Tswana se godsdienstige lewe.

ENGLISH: This thesis deals with bongaka or die magical practices of the Batswana in the Transvaal and Botswana. It is mainly based on original research-work which was done between 1952 and 1968. More than 300 texts were written down verbally as dictated by 16 Tswanas dingaka (“magicians”, “witch-doctors” or “medicine-men”). Most of the texts were dictated by Kgatla-bagaKgafela dingaka, but there are also texts of magicians from the Ngwato, Kwena, Tlokwa, Tlhako and other tribes. The original texts with translation and clarifying notes, form the basis of this thesis and are presented in an accompanying volume. Continuously reference is being made in the treatise to the original material, because of considerable new information which has come to light, which was not previously known with regard to the Tswana; to a certain extent it is also an addition to present literature on the principles of Bantu thought and their concept of reality.

The thesis commences with an initial resumé of past and present-day views on magic sorcery and witchcraft in Anthropology. Subsequently the history of the Kgatla and the tribal structure of Tswana society is surveyed, with special reference to social organization, the tribal authority, the economic aspect and religious life. In chapter IV the various types of dingaka or “magicians” are discussed. In chapter V their training, equipment, and contact with the badimo or ancestor-spirits is described. This is followed by a review of the activities and influence of the dingaka in the kgotla (tribal assembly) and in the everyday life of the family and the individual, and how they act as “protectors” of society and as mediators in tribal religion. Their manifold services as honoured helpers of society are discussed in detail in chapter VII, as for instance in the prevention and treatment of boloi (sorcery) by baloi (sorcerers).

Divination by means of ditaola of divining-bones is analysed so as to reveal the underlying system of interpretation. The ngaka is then discussed as “doctor” with a detailed study of his treatment of illness, as well as its prevention. Special attention is given to the plants which ware used by the dingaka. More than 500 different plants were collected under guidance of the “doctors’, and the medicinal uses recorded as dictated by them. Botanical specimens were forwarded to the National Herbarium in Pretoria for identification. Quite a considerable amount of new information on names and uses of the indigenous plants of Botswana and the Western Transvaal were obtained, and this is discussed in chapter IX. A list of Tswana names with their scientific equivalents and vice versa is attached in the addendum. Chapter X is a description of the use made of insects, reptile, bird and animal, as well as human body parts in the compounded “medicines”.

In a final chapter Bantu thought is discussed as pertaining to the magical and the empirical world in the light of the foregoing information, with reference to existing ethically and its influence on their present-day religious life is finally reviewed.

© 1971 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

Please cite as follows:

Reyneke, JL 1971, Towery by die Tswana met besondere verwysing na die Kgatla-bagaKgafela , DPhil thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-01282012-232003 / >

D12/4/62/ag

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