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A serious offence
Causes of plagiarism
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Correct referencing
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Plagiarism Afrikaanse weergawe
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Correct referencing
What is referencing?

Referencing is a standardised way of identifying sources of information used in academic writing. It is also the way to "get permission" from the author to use her/his ideas by acknowledging the fact that s(he) is the owner of these ideas.

This is done by citing the source in the text whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarise or copy someone else's ideas as part of your work and by including the reference in the list of references or bibliography at the end of your assignment.

What is correct referencing?

Different referencing systems with different styles and rules are used in academic writing . Harvard, Vancouver, APA and Footnotes are used by different faculties and departments on the UP campus. Find out from your lecturer which system is required for your course and follow the rules of this system consistently.

Comprehensive information on the different systems and their rules can be found at

Referencing web sources seems to be causing problems for almost everybody. These rules have been summarized and can be found at

Why should you reference?

  • Correct referencing demonstrates that you have consulted appropriate information sources and that you are familiar with developments and the leading researchers in this subject field.
  • Correct referencing shows that your ideas are related to those of the experts, adding authority to your arguments.
  • Correct referencing enables your readers to locate and consult the sources you have used in order to verify your data and to read more about it.
  • Correct referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism.

A Good web site for more information

Referencing and avoiding plagiarism, developed by the University of South Australia, Learning Connection, gives a good overview of referencing, quoting, paraphrasing, reference lists and bibliographies and has an excellent FAQ page.

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